Первый слайд презентации: Drugs affecting efferent innervation
Cholinomimetics, Anticholinesterase drugs
Efferent innervation of the body occurs via autonomic nerves (innervating visceral organs, blood vessels and glands) and motor nerves of skeletal muscles. Autonomic innervation is subdivided into cholinergic (parasympathetic) and adrenergic (sympathetic). There are two main mediators: acetylcholine and norepinephrine.
The efferent pathway of the autonomic nerves consists of two neurons: preganglionic and ganglionic (postganglionic). Cholinergic fibers are inside the pairs of cranial nerves (III, VII, IX, X). Axons of preganglionic neurons terminate at the autonomic ganglia in the synaptic contacts with ganglionic neurons.
Choline is accumulated in cholinergic presynaptic nerve endings via an active transport mechanism linked to a Na+ pump. Acetylcholine is synthesized from choline and acetyl-CoA and accumulated in synaptic vesicles. Ach is released from synaptic vesicles. Ach interacts with its receptors, but it is inactivated by acetylcholinesterase.
Слайд 8: Types of cholinergic receptors: N are nicotine-sensitive M are muscarine-sensitive
Nn (1) are: in ganglia, in the carotid sinus, in the adrenal medulla. Nm(2) are in skeletal muscles M1 are located in the Central nervous system, enterochromaffin cells of the stomach. M2 are in the heart. M3 are in smooth muscles of organs, glands of external secretion, endothelium of vessels.
Слайд 10: Mechanism of stimulators of M- cholinoceptors
M1 and M3: Activation of Ga proteins Activation of phospholipase Formation of Inositol-1,4,5 triphosphate Increase of Ca content in the cell Excitation effects
M2: Activation of Gi proteins Inhibition of adenylate cyclase Reduction of cAMP Inhibition of protein kinases Reduction of Ca content in the cell Oppression of the heart
Слайд 12: Classification of ChM:
Direct cholinomimetics: N, M-ChM: Acetylcholine, Carbacholine M-ChM: Pilocarpine, Aceclidine N-ChM: Cytisine (Tabex), Nicotine (Nicorette) Indirect cholinomimetics (anticholinesterase drugs): Neostigmine, Galantamine, Rivastigmine, Donepezil
Acetylcholine stimulates his receptors. But it is not used as a drug due to its very short action (several minutes). Acetylcholine is used in experimental pharmacology. Carbacholine is analogue of acetylcholine, it is more stable than acetylcholine. It lowers intraocular pressure and is used for the treatment of glaucoma.
Pilocarpine is an alkaloid, but it is obtained synthetically. It affects the eye in the following ways: Causes constriction of the pupils or miosis (contraction of the iris circular muscle – m. cphincter pupillae); Causes spasm of accommodation because constriction of the cilliary muscle relaxes the cilliary zonule (ligament of Zinn). Lens curvature increases. The eye is adjusted to the near point of vision.
Decreases intraocular pressure (iris becomes thinner, the angles of the anterior chamber are opened to a greater extent; outflow of the intraocular fluid through the iridocorneal angle space (Fontana’s space) to the scleral venous sinus ( Schlemm ’ canal) is improved. In clinical practice pilocarpine is administered locally in the form of eye drops to treat glaucoma. It is not used for systemic action.
Aceclidine is a synthetic drug. It causes: bradycardia, inhibition of atrioventricular conduction, ↓of blood pressure; ↑smooth muscle tone (bronchi, intestine, gallbladder, bile ducts, bladder, uterus); ↑secretion of exocrine glands (bronchi, intestine, salivary, lacrimal, nasopharyngeal glands).
Indications f or use: glaucoma ( pilocarpine, aceclidine), xerostomia, atony of the bladder, intestines, weakness of labor (aceclidine). Contraindications: bronchial asthma, ulcer, AV-blockade.
the tone of the bronchi blood pressure heart rate the tone of the intestine the secretion of the salivary glands Aceclidine Atropine
Слайд 21: Clinic of a poisoning with Amanita :
Dyspeptic disorders (abdominal pain, diarrhea, vomiting), Difficulty breathing (bronchospasm, wheezing, increased secretion of the bronchial glands), Profuse sweating, moist, cool skin, Bradycardia, miosis, myopia, pain in superciliary arcs, Central nervous system - excitation, disorientation. Help: Atropine
Anticholinesterase drugs Drugs of revesible action bind with anionic and esteratic sites of the enzyme. They inhibit it for several hours. They prevent the hydrolysis of acetylcholine and increase its level. Acetylcholine stimulates its receptors. Among this drugs there are alkaloids or tertiary amines (galantamine) and quaternary amines (neostigmine). Alkaloids go through the BBB, neostigmine doesn't.
Drugs of irreversible actions connect with esteratic site of enzyme by covalent bond. Cholinesterase activity is restored after synthesis of its new molecules. These substances are released from the bond very slowly. There are insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, combat toxic substances-sarin, Zaman, Vi-gases among these substances.
Main effects Ocular effects: miosis, ↓intraocular pressure, spasm of accommodation. Resorptive: ↑ smooth muscle tone (bronchi, intestine, gallbladder, bile ducts, bladder, uterus); ↑secretion of exocrine glands (bronchi, intestine, salivary, lacrimal, nasopharyngeal glands).
Bradycardia, ↓ AV conduction, ↓ blood pressure in therapeutic doses, but tachycardia, ↑ blood pressure (in large doses). Effect on the heart contraction rate is not only associated with excitation of its M- cholinoceptors, but also with the stimulation of cholinoceptors in the sympathetic ganglia, adrenal medulla and centers of the medulla oblongata). Improvement of neuromuscular transmission (nicotinic effect also).
Central effects They increase the content of ACH in neocortex and hippocampus, increase motor and mental activity, normalize impaired mental activity.
Indications for use Glaucoma, Atony of the intestine, bladder, Weakness of labor, Myasthenia gravis, paresis, paralysis, Alzheimer's disease, post-stroke conditions, accompanied by a decrease in intelligence Overdose of anticholinergics (atropine and muscle relaxants, poisoning by alkaloids of Belladonna, Datura, Henbane).
Poisoning with anticholinesterase drugs of irreversible actions. Clinic. Treatment Myosis, myopia; Increased sweating, wet cold skin; Salivation, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain; Suffocation (bronchospasm, hypersecretion of the bronchial glands); Bradycardia, tachycardia; increase / decrease in blood pressure;
Muscle twitches, tremors, cramps; Excitation of the CNS. In severe cases: Central nervous system inhibition, ↓ BP. Death from paralysis of the respiratory center.
Treatment Organophosphates must be removed from the sites of introductions. The skin and mucous membranes should be washed with 3-5% solution of sodium bicarbonate. The stomach is lavaged, adsorbing and laxative drugs are given, high siphon enemas are administered. Elimination with urine should be accelerated by means of the forced diuresis. Hemosorption, hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis.
Antidotes: Atropine in high doses blocks M-cholinoceptors. Cholinesterase reactivator: Trimedoxime and isonitrosinum. They interact with organophosphates residuals that are bound with acetylcholinesterase, releasing the enzyme and restoring its physiological activity. They are effective during the first few hours after poisoning
Nicotine is an alkaloid of tobacco leaves. It is used in experimental pharmacology to analyze the mechanism of drugs action. Nicotine affects both central and peripheral N- cholinoceptors. It has a two-phase effect because it stimulates N-CR in low doses but it blocks them when it is used in high doses. Tolerance and dependence develop to nicotine.
Nicotine interacts with N-CR of the autonomic ganglia and changes the functions of organs. N. stimulates the chemoreceptors of the sinocarotid zone and reflexively activates respiratory and vasomotor centers. In high doses N. causes the inhibition of these centers. In low doses N. stimulates N-cholinoceptors of the chromaffin cells of the adrenal glands and increases the release of epinephrine. In high doses it causes the opposite effect.
Nicotine has a marked effect on the CNS. It increases the release of dopamine into the Central nervous system, a person experiences the pleasure of smoking. If a person does not smoke, dopamine levels drop and the person feels unwell. Dependence to nicotine develops.
Слайд 38: Effects of nicotine
Effects Low doses High doses The heart rate ↓ ↑ Blood pressure ↑ ↓ Intestinal motility ↑ ↓ The secretion of exocrine glands ↑ ↓
Acute poisoning Abdominal pain, vomiting, nausea, diarrhea, Raised sweating, Headache, dizziness, visual impairment, hearing disorders, disorientation. In severe cases: lowering of blood pressure, oppression of the heart, oppression of the respiratory center. Help: Adsorbents, gastric lavage ; Anticholinergics ; artificial ventilation, symptomatic therapy
N. in low doses can be used for the treatment of tobacco dependence. It stimulates receptors and helps stop Smoking. We can used for example:
Cytisine is sometimes used in clinical practice as respiratory stimulant of reflex action because it stimulates receptors of carotid sinus. It stimulates receptors of adrenal medulla, increases the release of epinephrine and increases arterial pressure. Indications: depression of breathing (morphine poisoning, carbon monoxide, drowning, injury), to aid “quitting” smoking.
Cytisine is an analeptic because it restores depressed breathing and reduced pressure. It is effective only after intravenous administration.
Последний слайд презентации: Drugs affecting efferent innervation: Literature
1. Tripathi K.D. Essentials of Medical Pharmacology. Eighth Edition. -2019.- Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers. The Health Sciences Publisher. -New Delhi. London. Panama 2. D.A.Kharkevich. Pharmacology. Textbook for medical students. Translation of 12 th edition of Russion textbook “Pharmacology” (2017). – М., ГЭОТАР - Медиа, 2017. 3. Review of pharmacology. Gobind Rai Garg, Sparsh Gupta. 13 th edition. - 2019.- Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers. The Health Sciences Publisher. -New Delhi. London. Panama 4. Whalen Karen. Lippincott Illustrated Reviews : Pharmacology. Sixth Edition. - Wolters Kluwer. - 2015.-Philadelphia 5. Color Atlas of Pharmacology. 2nd edition, revised and expanded. Heinz Lüllmann.- 2000 Thieme 6. Pharmacology Examination & Board Review. Tenth Edition. Trevor Anthony J., Katzung Bertram G., Kruidering -Hall Marieke, Susan B. Masters. - a LANGE medical book. - 2013.-New York 7. Medical Pharmacology at a Glance. Eighth Edition. Neal Michael J. – 2016. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. 8. USMLE Step 1. Lecture Notes. Pharmacology. Lionel P.Raymon and others.- Kaplan Medical.Inc. -2009