Презентация на тему: DISTINCTIVE FEATURES OF GERMANIC languages

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DISTINCTIVE FEATURES OF GERMANIC languages
DISTINCTIVE FEATURES OF GERMANIC languages
DISTINCTIVE FEATURES OF GERMANIC languages
PIE :: CG МС phonology
Vowels
Word building
GERMANIC Vocabulary
The PIE :: Germanic verbal system
Grammar
Regular :: irregular verbs
Weak :: strong adjectives
Syntax
Germanic Vocabulary
Areal particularities
West - Gothic – Scandinavian particularities
Areal particularities
DISTINCTIVE FEATURES OF GERMANIC languages
Scandinavian traits
DISTINCTIVE FEATURES OF GERMANIC languages
Proto Indo European, Proto Germanic, Old Germanic SYNTAX
Karl Brugmann (1849-1919 )
Berthold Gustav Gottlieb Delbrück (26 July 1842– 3 Jan 1922)
Main Traits of IE Syntax
IE Simple sentence types
Dominant structural sentence models in modern languages
Old Germanic simple sentence
Parts of the sentence
Compound nounal predicate
attribute
Object
Adverbial modifier
Syntactic constructions
Absolute constructions
Negation
Types of syntactic connection
Further development of simple sentences in Germanic languages
PIE Minor Syntax
PIE Major Syntax
Compound and Complex sentences
Compound sentences
PIE Major Syntax. Definition of Hypotaxis
Major syntax
Complex sentences
Types of clauses
summary
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Первый слайд презентации: DISTINCTIVE FEATURES OF GERMANIC languages

Lecture 5

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Слайд 2

Germanic became different from the other IE language groups in a number of ways:

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Common Germanic Areal

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Слайд 4: PIE :: CG МС phonology

PIE phonology Gmc phonology The Indo-European free accentual system allowed any syllable to be stressed. Stress being tonal / dynamic a large number of stops, few fricatives. The traditional (pre-laryngeal) reconstruction included only one fricative, /s/ Dynamic stress on the root syllable, Unstressed vowels reduced, 3 Consonant shifts

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Слайд 5: Vowels

Several Indo-European vowels were modified in the Germanic languages. For example, IE /a:/ became /o:/. Latin mater :: OE modor.

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Слайд 6: Word building

PIE CGmc Three parts of the PIE word Root stem suffix ending > – ending In CGmnc the stem suffix either merges with case flexion, or becomes an ending, or merges with the root. Extensive use of ablaut as word building means ONorse bera нести, нар оджувати – barn дитя, ОЕ. bindan зв ’ язувати – band тасьма ).

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Слайд 7: GERMANIC Vocabulary

has a number of unique vocabulary items, words which have no known cognates in other IE languages: rain, drink, drive, broad, hold, wife, meat, ice, fowl. These words may have been lost in the other IE languages, borrowed from non-IE languages, coined in Germanic.

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Слайд 8: The PIE :: Germanic verbal system

Simplified: PIE distinctions of tense and aspect (indicates whether an action or state is viewed with regard to beginning, duration, incompletion, etc.) were lost except for the present and preterite (past) tenses. These two tenses are still the only ones indicated by inflection in Modern English; future and perfect tenses are expressed with analytic forms -e.g., I will have gone, etc.

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Слайд 9: Grammar

PIE CGmc V erbs used a sophisticated system of conjugation. a complex system of morphology including inflections (suffixing of roots), and ablaut Nouns used a sophisticated system of declension Past tense of weak verbs by means of dental suffix : Goth. satjan – satida, ModE to play – played And strong verbs by means of ablaut : Goth. bindan – band, Strong and weak declension of Adjectives

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Слайд 10: Regular :: irregular verbs

Germanic developed a preterite tense (called weak or regular) with a dental suffix, -d or -t (e.g. fish, fished, etc.). Germanic languages thus have two types of verbs, weak ( regular ) and strong ( irregular ). Strong verbs indicate tense by an ablaut The weak form is the living method of inflection, and many originally strong verbs have become weak.

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Слайд 11: Weak :: strong adjectives

The weak declension was used when the modified noun was preceded by another word which indicated case, number, and gender. The strong declension was used in other situations. These declensions are no longer found in modern English, but compare these examples from Old English: þa geongan ceorlas 'the young fellows' and geonge ceorlas 'young fellows.' (The weak adjective ends in -an while the strong adjective ends in -e.)

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Слайд 12: Syntax

The simple sentence has the tendency for fixed word order, especially for the verb ( fixed word order in English, frame in German ).

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Слайд 13: Germanic Vocabulary

Early layers of borrowings are Celtic Latin Greek Later borrowings are from Latin,French Germanic vocabulary proper is largely retained in Icelandic, having scarce borrowings. English is characterised by etymologic vocabulary heterogenity having three main sources of loan words: Scandinavian, Latin, F rench.

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Слайд 14: Areal particularities

East West North All Germanic languages possess distinctive particularities discriminating their groupings – East, West, North. The distinctive particularities touch upon vowels and consonants as well as morphology.

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Слайд 15: West - Gothic – Scandinavian particularities

Gothic Scandinavian : retaining of intervocal spirants b, d ( v, ð ). West- Germanic :: Scandinavian - Rotacism скр. ayas бронза, гот. aiz, да. ār (> ore руда), - Verner’s law

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Слайд 16: Areal particularities

West G ermanic traits - ð > d in all positions, - West Germanic gemination Anglo-Saxon traits Nasal loss Goth. fimf – OE fif, Goth. anþar – OE ōðer.

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Слайд 17

Gothic particularities OHG particularities Lack of voiced occlusives b, d, g, Retaining of CGmc z. Second consonant shift þ > ð > d in all positions

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Слайд 18: Scandinavian traits

z > r in all positions ( посл i довний ротацизм: сканд. sunr ).

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Слайд 19

Syntax is a branch of grammar that studies the structure of a sentence, word order, members of the sentence ways of sentence connection 19

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Слайд 20: Proto Indo European, Proto Germanic, Old Germanic SYNTAX

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Слайд 21: Karl Brugmann (1849-1919 )

Was a German linguist. He is a towering figure in IE linguistics. Brugmann's fame rests on the two volumes on phonology, morphology, and word formation which he contributed to the five-volume " Grundriss der vergleichenden Grammatik der indogermanischen Sprachen " (1886 -1893). The other three volumes were written by Berthold Delbrück and provided a still-unsurpassed account of PIE syntax. 21 Karl Brugmann

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Слайд 22: Berthold Gustav Gottlieb Delbrück (26 July 1842– 3 Jan 1922)

22 Berthold Delbruck Prepared the first thoroughly methodical and complete treatment of a problem in comparative syntax.

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Слайд 23: Main Traits of IE Syntax

postposition preposition Main Traits of IE Syntax V (verb) - the main constituent of the sentence The position of S (subject) and O (object) is determined in relation to the verb S O V O S 23

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Слайд 24: IE Simple sentence types

One-member: nominal, verbal Two-member: S V Three – member: SOV (Він мене бачить) 24

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Слайд 25: Dominant structural sentence models in modern languages

Model # 1 VSO Model # 2 SVO Model # 3 SOV 25 Joseph Greenberg

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Слайд 26: Old Germanic simple sentence

One member: with the Subject lacking were of two types: 1) with implicit subject (so called formally one-member): elliptical, imperative, inflected verb forms: Goth. laistei afar mis – “ іди за мною ” 2) with non-finites to denote feelings, natural phenomena: Goth. rignjan – “ дощить ” Two member: extended, non-extended OV: runoz waritu – пишу руни, SOV: iÞ Jesus quaÞ du imma, OVS: Makija maridai Ala – меч прикрасив Ала 26

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Слайд 27: Parts of the sentence

S – subject : noun / pronoun in Nonminative case V – predicate : verbal and nounal. Simple verbal predicate expressed by the finite form of the verb Complex verbal predicate: Modal verb + Infinitive Verb denoting ‘beginning, possession, getting, becoming’ + Infinitive / Participle 27

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Слайд 28: Compound nounal predicate

LINK VERB + PREDICATIVE (noun, adjective, participle) O Icelandic : Þ ā war kanungr ungr - т оді був король молодим OE: Þæt wæs gōd cyning – то був хороший король OHG: Ih bin alt – я старий Gothic: huan aggwu þata daur (without link verb) – які вузькі ті ворота 28

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Слайд 29: attribute

Adjective: OE Beowulf lēofa Participle Pronoun Numeral Noun in Genitive case: fuglam himinis – птахом небесним N+N - the attribute can be either of the two nouns in OE þæs cynings brōdor – брат короля 29

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Слайд 30: Object

Prepositional Non-prepositional Non-prepositional can be in pre / post position to the verb 30

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Слайд 31: Adverbial modifier

Time, place, purpose, reason, manner Expressed by: adverbs, fossilised case forms that turned to adverbs, N+Preposition ; Infinitive+Preposition Goth Himma daga – сьогодні, сего+дня 31

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Слайд 32: Syntactic constructions

Absolute constructions Infinitive with Accusative (in bookish style) under the influence of Latin and Greek Dativus absolutus (Participle + Dative) Dala þ þan atgaggandin imma af fairgunja, laistidēdun afar imma iumjōns managōs – Коли він спустився вниз з гори (до нього, що спускався), за ним пішли великі натовпи людей 32

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Слайд 33: Absolute constructions

Absolute accusative (expressing temporal meaning): at ragin ō ndin Saurim Kweirainiau – коли Квіріній правив Сирієюю Absolute nominal : jah waur þans dags gatils – коли настав день пригожий 33

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Слайд 34: Negation

* ne- / ni - Position : usually before Predicate, Object Sometimes before Subject Predominantly mononegation in the majority of G languages In OE – polinegation : OE hē næfre nænig lēoþ geleornade – він ніколи ніякої пісні не вчив 34

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Слайд 35: Types of syntactic connection

Agreement or concord happens when a word changes form depending on the other words to which it relates. Case government is government of the grammatical case of verb arguments, when a verb or preposition is said to 'govern' the grammatical case on its noun phrase complement Juxtapposition is placement of two words near each other. 35

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Слайд 36: Further development of simple sentences in Germanic languages

Juxtapposition and government in English frame in German ‘Modern English has the verb in medial position, which sets the language apart from other Germanic languages. In other Germanic languages the verb is in the second position if it is not proceeded by a Subject’ ( Buniyatova I.R.) 36 Professor Buniyatova I.R. Ukraine

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Слайд 37: PIE Minor Syntax

Attributive syntagm : Adj N, possessive Genitive N N Negation: *n(e)- + particle / adverb / pronoun: L. nēmō, n- ullus ; Goth. ni mannahum, ni ainshun 37

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Слайд 38: PIE Major Syntax

Compound sentences: S + Conj + S (enclitic particle L. k u e, Goth. (u)h) Complex sentences and conjunctions in PIE cannot be reconstructed 38

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Слайд 39: Compound and Complex sentences

Developed system, originated either in late PIE, or after separation of Germanic group of languages from common ancestor. Compound / complex connection was at first indistinct. 39

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Слайд 40: Compound sentences

Originated on the basis of simple sentences connected (a) syndetically Typical conjunctions: OE and, oþþe, ac OHG inti, ioh, ouh, doh, abur, odo O Icel ok, eda 40

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Слайд 41: PIE Major Syntax. Definition of Hypotaxis

Hypotaxis is the grammatical arrangement of functionally similar but "unequal" constructs (hypo="beneath", taxis="arrangement"), i.e., constructs playing an unequal role in a sentence. A common example of syntactic expression of hypotaxis is subordination in a complex sentence. 41

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Слайд 42: Major syntax

PIE hypotaxis can not be reconstructed because it either didn’t exist, or its material representation (conjunctions) had been renovated in all IE languages. Conjunctions marking dependant clauses in IE languages developed from declinable forms of pronouns: тому, що ; якому ; в ідколи. 42

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Слайд 43: Complex sentences

Appeared on the basis of compound sentences Are the most recent type of sentence. The earliest type of clause is relative The markers: conjunctions, word order, conditional mood. 43

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Слайд 44: Types of clauses

Subject Goth. Pronouns saei, þatei OIcel at, er Adjective Goth. Pronouns sah, þatuh, saei, þatei OE se, seo, þæt, þe OHG – ther, thaz, thiu Temporal Goth þan, miþþanei, untē, biþē, OE þa, þonne, þær, siþþanō Object þatei, ei, þei, OE þæt, þe OHG thaz Adverbial: place, reason, purpose, condition: OE þadei, þarei, þær, OHG thar, Goth unte, þande etc. 44

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Последний слайд презентации: DISTINCTIVE FEATURES OF GERMANIC languages: summary

In PIE there were only simple sentences (OV) In Germanic languages word order shifts to (S)VO One member sentence in Germanic was changed into two-member sentence Complex sentences developed from simple Polinegation changed to mononegation 45

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