Первый слайд презентации: DISTINCTIVE FEATURES OF GERMANIC languages
Germanic became different from the other IE language groups in a number of ways:
Слайд 4: PIE :: CG МС phonology
PIE phonology Gmc phonology The Indo-European free accentual system allowed any syllable to be stressed. Stress being tonal / dynamic a large number of stops, few fricatives. The traditional (pre-laryngeal) reconstruction included only one fricative, /s/ Dynamic stress on the root syllable, Unstressed vowels reduced, 3 Consonant shifts
Слайд 5: Vowels
Several Indo-European vowels were modified in the Germanic languages. For example, IE /a:/ became /o:/. Latin mater :: OE modor.
Слайд 6: Word building
PIE CGmc Three parts of the PIE word Root stem suffix ending > – ending In CGmnc the stem suffix either merges with case flexion, or becomes an ending, or merges with the root. Extensive use of ablaut as word building means ONorse bera нести, нар оджувати – barn дитя, ОЕ. bindan зв ’ язувати – band тасьма ).
Слайд 7: GERMANIC Vocabulary
has a number of unique vocabulary items, words which have no known cognates in other IE languages: rain, drink, drive, broad, hold, wife, meat, ice, fowl. These words may have been lost in the other IE languages, borrowed from non-IE languages, coined in Germanic.
Слайд 8: The PIE :: Germanic verbal system
Simplified: PIE distinctions of tense and aspect (indicates whether an action or state is viewed with regard to beginning, duration, incompletion, etc.) were lost except for the present and preterite (past) tenses. These two tenses are still the only ones indicated by inflection in Modern English; future and perfect tenses are expressed with analytic forms -e.g., I will have gone, etc.
Слайд 9: Grammar
PIE CGmc V erbs used a sophisticated system of conjugation. a complex system of morphology including inflections (suffixing of roots), and ablaut Nouns used a sophisticated system of declension Past tense of weak verbs by means of dental suffix : Goth. satjan – satida, ModE to play – played And strong verbs by means of ablaut : Goth. bindan – band, Strong and weak declension of Adjectives
Слайд 10: Regular :: irregular verbs
Germanic developed a preterite tense (called weak or regular) with a dental suffix, -d or -t (e.g. fish, fished, etc.). Germanic languages thus have two types of verbs, weak ( regular ) and strong ( irregular ). Strong verbs indicate tense by an ablaut The weak form is the living method of inflection, and many originally strong verbs have become weak.
Слайд 11: Weak :: strong adjectives
The weak declension was used when the modified noun was preceded by another word which indicated case, number, and gender. The strong declension was used in other situations. These declensions are no longer found in modern English, but compare these examples from Old English: þa geongan ceorlas 'the young fellows' and geonge ceorlas 'young fellows.' (The weak adjective ends in -an while the strong adjective ends in -e.)
Слайд 12: Syntax
The simple sentence has the tendency for fixed word order, especially for the verb ( fixed word order in English, frame in German ).
Слайд 13: Germanic Vocabulary
Early layers of borrowings are Celtic Latin Greek Later borrowings are from Latin,French Germanic vocabulary proper is largely retained in Icelandic, having scarce borrowings. English is characterised by etymologic vocabulary heterogenity having three main sources of loan words: Scandinavian, Latin, F rench.
Слайд 14: Areal particularities
East West North All Germanic languages possess distinctive particularities discriminating their groupings – East, West, North. The distinctive particularities touch upon vowels and consonants as well as morphology.
Слайд 15: West - Gothic – Scandinavian particularities
Gothic Scandinavian : retaining of intervocal spirants b, d ( v, ð ). West- Germanic :: Scandinavian - Rotacism скр. ayas бронза, гот. aiz, да. ār (> ore руда), - Verner’s law
Слайд 16: Areal particularities
West G ermanic traits - ð > d in all positions, - West Germanic gemination Anglo-Saxon traits Nasal loss Goth. fimf – OE fif, Goth. anþar – OE ōðer.
Gothic particularities OHG particularities Lack of voiced occlusives b, d, g, Retaining of CGmc z. Second consonant shift þ > ð > d in all positions
Слайд 18: Scandinavian traits
z > r in all positions ( посл i довний ротацизм: сканд. sunr ).
Syntax is a branch of grammar that studies the structure of a sentence, word order, members of the sentence ways of sentence connection 19
Слайд 21: Karl Brugmann (1849-1919 )
Was a German linguist. He is a towering figure in IE linguistics. Brugmann's fame rests on the two volumes on phonology, morphology, and word formation which he contributed to the five-volume " Grundriss der vergleichenden Grammatik der indogermanischen Sprachen " (1886 -1893). The other three volumes were written by Berthold Delbrück and provided a still-unsurpassed account of PIE syntax. 21 Karl Brugmann
Слайд 22: Berthold Gustav Gottlieb Delbrück (26 July 1842– 3 Jan 1922)
22 Berthold Delbruck Prepared the first thoroughly methodical and complete treatment of a problem in comparative syntax.
Слайд 23: Main Traits of IE Syntax
postposition preposition Main Traits of IE Syntax V (verb) - the main constituent of the sentence The position of S (subject) and O (object) is determined in relation to the verb S O V O S 23
Слайд 24: IE Simple sentence types
One-member: nominal, verbal Two-member: S V Three – member: SOV (Він мене бачить) 24
Слайд 25: Dominant structural sentence models in modern languages
Model # 1 VSO Model # 2 SVO Model # 3 SOV 25 Joseph Greenberg
Слайд 26: Old Germanic simple sentence
One member: with the Subject lacking were of two types: 1) with implicit subject (so called formally one-member): elliptical, imperative, inflected verb forms: Goth. laistei afar mis – “ іди за мною ” 2) with non-finites to denote feelings, natural phenomena: Goth. rignjan – “ дощить ” Two member: extended, non-extended OV: runoz waritu – пишу руни, SOV: iÞ Jesus quaÞ du imma, OVS: Makija maridai Ala – меч прикрасив Ала 26
Слайд 27: Parts of the sentence
S – subject : noun / pronoun in Nonminative case V – predicate : verbal and nounal. Simple verbal predicate expressed by the finite form of the verb Complex verbal predicate: Modal verb + Infinitive Verb denoting ‘beginning, possession, getting, becoming’ + Infinitive / Participle 27
Слайд 28: Compound nounal predicate
LINK VERB + PREDICATIVE (noun, adjective, participle) O Icelandic : Þ ā war kanungr ungr - т оді був король молодим OE: Þæt wæs gōd cyning – то був хороший король OHG: Ih bin alt – я старий Gothic: huan aggwu þata daur (without link verb) – які вузькі ті ворота 28
Слайд 29: attribute
Adjective: OE Beowulf lēofa Participle Pronoun Numeral Noun in Genitive case: fuglam himinis – птахом небесним N+N - the attribute can be either of the two nouns in OE þæs cynings brōdor – брат короля 29
Слайд 30: Object
Prepositional Non-prepositional Non-prepositional can be in pre / post position to the verb 30
Слайд 31: Adverbial modifier
Time, place, purpose, reason, manner Expressed by: adverbs, fossilised case forms that turned to adverbs, N+Preposition ; Infinitive+Preposition Goth Himma daga – сьогодні, сего+дня 31
Слайд 32: Syntactic constructions
Absolute constructions Infinitive with Accusative (in bookish style) under the influence of Latin and Greek Dativus absolutus (Participle + Dative) Dala þ þan atgaggandin imma af fairgunja, laistidēdun afar imma iumjōns managōs – Коли він спустився вниз з гори (до нього, що спускався), за ним пішли великі натовпи людей 32
Слайд 33: Absolute constructions
Absolute accusative (expressing temporal meaning): at ragin ō ndin Saurim Kweirainiau – коли Квіріній правив Сирієюю Absolute nominal : jah waur þans dags gatils – коли настав день пригожий 33
Слайд 34: Negation
* ne- / ni - Position : usually before Predicate, Object Sometimes before Subject Predominantly mononegation in the majority of G languages In OE – polinegation : OE hē næfre nænig lēoþ geleornade – він ніколи ніякої пісні не вчив 34
Слайд 35: Types of syntactic connection
Agreement or concord happens when a word changes form depending on the other words to which it relates. Case government is government of the grammatical case of verb arguments, when a verb or preposition is said to 'govern' the grammatical case on its noun phrase complement Juxtapposition is placement of two words near each other. 35
Слайд 36: Further development of simple sentences in Germanic languages
Juxtapposition and government in English frame in German ‘Modern English has the verb in medial position, which sets the language apart from other Germanic languages. In other Germanic languages the verb is in the second position if it is not proceeded by a Subject’ ( Buniyatova I.R.) 36 Professor Buniyatova I.R. Ukraine
Слайд 37: PIE Minor Syntax
Attributive syntagm : Adj N, possessive Genitive N N Negation: *n(e)- + particle / adverb / pronoun: L. nēmō, n- ullus ; Goth. ni mannahum, ni ainshun 37
Слайд 38: PIE Major Syntax
Compound sentences: S + Conj + S (enclitic particle L. k u e, Goth. (u)h) Complex sentences and conjunctions in PIE cannot be reconstructed 38
Слайд 39: Compound and Complex sentences
Developed system, originated either in late PIE, or after separation of Germanic group of languages from common ancestor. Compound / complex connection was at first indistinct. 39
Слайд 40: Compound sentences
Originated on the basis of simple sentences connected (a) syndetically Typical conjunctions: OE and, oþþe, ac OHG inti, ioh, ouh, doh, abur, odo O Icel ok, eda 40
Слайд 41: PIE Major Syntax. Definition of Hypotaxis
Hypotaxis is the grammatical arrangement of functionally similar but "unequal" constructs (hypo="beneath", taxis="arrangement"), i.e., constructs playing an unequal role in a sentence. A common example of syntactic expression of hypotaxis is subordination in a complex sentence. 41
Слайд 42: Major syntax
PIE hypotaxis can not be reconstructed because it either didn’t exist, or its material representation (conjunctions) had been renovated in all IE languages. Conjunctions marking dependant clauses in IE languages developed from declinable forms of pronouns: тому, що ; якому ; в ідколи. 42
Слайд 43: Complex sentences
Appeared on the basis of compound sentences Are the most recent type of sentence. The earliest type of clause is relative The markers: conjunctions, word order, conditional mood. 43
Слайд 44: Types of clauses
Subject Goth. Pronouns saei, þatei OIcel at, er Adjective Goth. Pronouns sah, þatuh, saei, þatei OE se, seo, þæt, þe OHG – ther, thaz, thiu Temporal Goth þan, miþþanei, untē, biþē, OE þa, þonne, þær, siþþanō Object þatei, ei, þei, OE þæt, þe OHG thaz Adverbial: place, reason, purpose, condition: OE þadei, þarei, þær, OHG thar, Goth unte, þande etc. 44
Последний слайд презентации: DISTINCTIVE FEATURES OF GERMANIC languages: summary
In PIE there were only simple sentences (OV) In Germanic languages word order shifts to (S)VO One member sentence in Germanic was changed into two-member sentence Complex sentences developed from simple Polinegation changed to mononegation 45