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Day 8 Features of primary language classroom management
Session 1: Types of language classroom question and correction techniques
Слайд 3: Questions relating to issues in this session?
Why are questions crucial in all learning ? What specific extra purpose do they serve in language classrooms? How can we categorise types of classroom question? What are crucial features in differentiating questions? How can Ts vary question interaction patterns? How and when do teachers correct answers?
Слайд 4: Teachers typically ask between 300-400 questions per day
Questioning is crucial in: managing the class engaging students with content encouraging participation increasing understanding. promoting formative assessment. The quantity of questions asked needs to be considered in relation to: general time constraints keep teacher talking time to a minimum their effectiveness in maximising learner contributions.
Слайд 5: EFL: Types of questions
display referential probing convergent concept procedural hypothetical divergent
Слайд 6: Language teacher questions
convergent question hypothetical question probing question procedural question display question divergent question concept checking question referential question to move lesson stages/activities along to elicit a range of learner language to check learners have understood to explore learner answers further to focus on language meaning and forms to promote learner speculation to elicit a simple correct answer to elicit something the teacher does not know answer to.
Strategy/approach Process Gains and benefits Thinking time : Consciously waiting for a learner or class to think through an answer (before you break the silence) e.g. 15-30secs Provide time between setting the question and requiring an answer. Sometimes alerting learners to the approach and the time available to develop an answer. No hands questioning: Using the ‘no hands up’ rule Ref. AfL publication - Working Inside the Black Box. Learners aware that those required to give an answer, will be selected by the teacher. Teachers alert them to this as questions are asked. Linked to ‘thinking time’. Basketball questioning: Move questions and discussions between learners Teacher establishes movement of ideas and responses around the class. Builds on other learners ’ ideas and comments. Accepts ‘half-formed’ ideas. NB not ‘ping-pong’ Conscripts and volunteers : Using a planned mix of ‘conscripts’ and ‘volunteers’ Teacher selects answers from those who volunteer an answer and an equal amount of those who do not.
Strategy/approach Process Gains and benefits Eavesdropping: Deploying specific targeted questions Listen in to group discussions and target specific questions to groups and individuals. 5Ws: Modeling simple exploratory questions to gather information Teacher models the use of Who, What, Where, When and Why to set out a simple information gathering response based on the information provided. Signal questions: Providing signals to learners about the kind of answer that would best fit the question being asked. Teacher responds to learners attempt to answer, by signaling and guiding the answers. Seek a partial answer: In the context of asking difficult whole class questions, deliberately ask a learner who will provide only a partly formed answer, to promote collective engagement.
Strategy/approach Process Gains and benefits Phone a friend: Removes stress to enable those who cannot answer to participate Those who cannot answer are allowed to nominate a fellow learner to suggest an answer on their behalf, but they still have to provide their own answer, perhaps building on this. Hot-seating: A learner is placed in the ‘hot-seat’ to take several questions from the class and teacher. Mantle of the expert: A learner wears the cloak of the expert to answer questions from the class. Preview: Previewing questions in advance Questions are shared/displayed before being asked, or the start of the lesson. Pair rehearsal: of an answer or a question Pairs of learners are able to discuss and agree responses to questions together.
Слайд 10: Error Correction
Correction symbols Some teachers use prompts for correction while speaking. Some well-known examples are: Make a ‘T’ with fingers to illustrate missing ‘the’. Show a small word missing by holding thumb and forefinger close together. Cross hands over to show wrong word order. … can you add to this list.
Слайд 11: Returning to our question…
How can we categorise types of classroom question? Give a concrete example to another teacher of the different types of language classroom question we have seen this session.
Слайд 13: Questions relating to issues in this session
Why do young learners find stories so engaging? How can features of stories be exploited pre-,while- and post-listening/reading? How can Ts modify language when storytelling? What’s the impact of accompanying story listening with viewing?
Слайд 14: Tiddler ‘story’
[W] Listening to an animal story with illustrations e.g. ‘ Tiddler ’. Teacher reads the story modified to class language level. [I] Listening to instructions for drawing, making and decorating different fish. [P] Writing captions (bubbles) of things learners remember from the story or fish might say.
Слайд 15: Key class phases in story activity
Pre: pre-teaching/eliciting vocabulary introducing characters s tory-telling setting: mat, props, hats, puppets, signs, etc. While: images, animation, reinforcing language l istening and reading along a udience participation/pantomime Post: c haracter empathy/voice consolidation c onsolidating language drama, craft, display
Слайд 16: Bike stories: Curious George and other bikes
[W] Learners turn illustrations of a bike story ‘My new bike’ and suggest language for each picture. www.myonlinereading.com/ my - new - bike.php [D] Teacher introduces some key words from the story: curious surprise animal show newspaper www.youtube.com/watch?v=eX7Jv_1YsuE [W] Whole class watches animation ‘Curious George rides his bike’ and listen to teacher tell story. [P] Learners work in pairs and make up and write captions for different sequences in the story. [W] Teacher tells the story with animation again and learners shout out captions i.e. what ‘Curious George’ says/is thinking. [W] Learners write out a selection of captions for a class story display.
Слайд 17: Returning to our question
How can Ts modify language when storytelling? Discuss with another delegate features that made the stories we heard accessible to learners.
Слайд 19: Questions related to issues in the session
What are the different learning style/mode preferences typically exhibited by learners? How can teachers effectively address these in activities? What type of language does performing craft activities particularly involve. What purposes can organised classroom display serve?
Audio, visual and kinaesthetic learners Learning styles are simply different preferences in the ways of learning. If teachers develop their teaching styles and provide a variety of tasks in these different styles, learning will become more effective and efficient.
Audio learners like teachers that: use role plays as part of their teaching encourage classroom discussions encourage learners to work in groups give time for learners to ask questions include reading passages aloud in their teaching makes learners recall facts by reciting things – rhymes, mnemonics, etc. do not need absolute silence in the classroom. Audio, visual and kinaesthetic learners
Visual learners like teachers that: use pictures and videos draw on the board ask learners to visualise a scene, or successful outcome gives learners time to sketch out ideas or to take notes encourages use of coloured pens likes to have a colourful classroom. Audio, visual and kinaesthetic learners
Kinaesthetic learners like teachers that: encourage good note-taking (when watching videos, listening to explanations or going through examples) use activities that include moving around the classroom use sticky-notes and flash cards for noting and sorting ideas encourage learning by doing, not just sitting. Audio, visual and kinaesthetic learners
Слайд 24: What’s in a task?
visual learners auditory learners kinaesthetic learners Look at the activities. Sort them according to which ones would appeal more to:
Слайд 25: Making finger/potato/hand puppets
a simple hand [bag] puppet www.youtube.com/watch?v=BnFdE7lbaBE
Слайд 27: Display
Display as stimulus - designed to arouse interest in a particular concept or theme; cross-curricular links, develop aesthetic sense Display as information - designed to inform; provide reinforcement; act as resource, prompt Display as celebration - designed to present children's work to a wider audience. validate work, sense of community, achievement and respect
Слайд 28: Key elements in display
imagination: think big and out of the box effort: think planning and resourcing structure: think background, focus, visibility organisation: think timing and process Refresh, update and move on.
Primary Display Internet inspiration Find ‘display’ images from real classrooms that might be used to inspire teachers related to these actual displays in the curriculum Spring in Kazakhstan Underwater ocean scene Puppet/mobile displays Classroom rules/signs display
Слайд 30: Returning to our earlier questions
What was the main motivational ‘purpose’ behind each display found on the internet ? What type of language did our craft activities typically involve.
Слайд 32: Questions related to this session
Why use content/activities from other subjects ? Can curricular concepts be taught in English? What are some ways in which we can teach collaboratively? What additional steps are involved in cross-curricular lessons?
Слайд 33: Collaborative teaching
Science [P] Listening to instructions for cutting out, vehicle outlines, making body of vehicle and showing how many people are inside. [P] Visiting teacher’s moving parts shop and requesting the things needed to make rest of vehicle. [P] Writing out labels in the form of flags for to put on learner vehicles, e.g. Tom and Tina’s tractor. [W] Saying where your vehicle can get to (vehicles rolled down a gentle slope and along a flat surface). Rest of class asked: Can it?
Слайд 35: Cross-curricular primary tasks
Maths Listening, measuring and completing a graph about how long learner’s step is. Activity framework, worksheet and graph template : http ://www.primaryresources.co.uk/maths/pdfs/how_long_is_your_step.pdf Art and Design [I] Watching a demonstration and following instructions on how to wrap present. Silent video presentation which teacher pauses and prompts with language. [I] [f] Listening to instructions to make decorations to stick on wrapped presents e.g. Draw a star. Colour the star purple. Now give instructions for display.
Слайд 36: Simple Maths/Science focuses within the English Curriculum
Halving and doubling bingo Sink or swim Making representations from shapes