Презентация на тему: COURSE STUDENT MUVAHID Scientific Leader ANNAS ZHUKOVA GENETIC CHARACTRISTIC OF

COURSE STUDENT MUVAHID Scientific Leader ANNAS ZHUKOVA GENETIC CHARACTRISTIC OF
population
evolution
COURSE STUDENT MUVAHID Scientific Leader ANNAS ZHUKOVA GENETIC CHARACTRISTIC OF
POPULATION AS THE BASIC UNIT OF EVOLUTION.
FACTORS OF EVOLUTION
POPULATION SIZE
genetic characteristics of population
Heterogeneity of populations
Genetical unity of populations.
The Hardy-Weinberg law shows that in large populations, the process of inheritance does not by itself cause changes in allele frequencies, which remain
Most populations have a large reservoir of variability
EVOLUTION
COURSE STUDENT MUVAHID Scientific Leader ANNAS ZHUKOVA GENETIC CHARACTRISTIC OF
COURSE STUDENT MUVAHID Scientific Leader ANNAS ZHUKOVA GENETIC CHARACTRISTIC OF
COURSE STUDENT MUVAHID Scientific Leader ANNAS ZHUKOVA GENETIC CHARACTRISTIC OF
COURSE STUDENT MUVAHID Scientific Leader ANNAS ZHUKOVA GENETIC CHARACTRISTIC OF
COURSE STUDENT MUVAHID Scientific Leader ANNAS ZHUKOVA GENETIC CHARACTRISTIC OF
for better understanding
COURSE STUDENT MUVAHID Scientific Leader ANNAS ZHUKOVA GENETIC CHARACTRISTIC OF
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Первый слайд презентации

COURSE STUDENT MUVAHID Scientific Leader ANNAS ZHUKOVA GENETIC CHARACTRISTIC OF HUMAN POPULATION Medical Academy named after S.I.  Georgievsky of  Vernadsky  CFU DEPARTMENT OF MEDICAL BIOLOGY

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Слайд 2: population

population is a group of organisms of the same species that live in the same area How large a population is and how fast it is growing are often used as measures of its health A single individual cannot evolve alone; evolution is the process of changing the gene frequencies within a gene pool. The process of evolution occurs only in populations and not in individuals

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Слайд 3: evolution

evolution is the change in the characteristics of a species over several generations and relies on the process of natural selection. The theory of evolution is based on the idea that all species are related and gradually change over time. Evolution by natural selection is one of the best substantiated theories in the history of science, supported by evidence from a wide variety of scientific disciplines

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Different characteristics tend to exist within any given population as a result of  mutation,  genetic recombination  and other sources of  genetic variation. Evolution occurs when evolutionary processes such as  natural selection  (including  sexual selection ) and  genetic drift  act on this variation, resulting in certain characteristics becoming more common or rare within a population.

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Слайд 5: POPULATION AS THE BASIC UNIT OF EVOLUTION

A  population  is the smallest  unit  of living organisms that can undergo  evolution.... A peccary  population, therefore, can be considered as a "pool" of genes and gene types that reflect the genetic diversity of all the individuals within the group. This "pool-of-genes" is what changes when  evolution  takes place.

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Слайд 6: FACTORS OF EVOLUTION

NON-DIRECTED FACTORS OF EVOLUTION - GENETIC VARIATION IN POPULATION GENE MUTATION RECOMBINATION OF GENES HYBRIDIZATION - POPULATION SIZE - REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION DIRECTED FACTORS OF EVOLUTION - NATURAL SELECTION

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Слайд 7: POPULATION SIZE

In nature all populations have a tendency and a tremendous potential for growth, but remain limited to a relatively constant size due to limitation of resources. It means only a small size of population actually serve as parents for next generation. Normally the individual better adapted to their environment are more likely to survive. But chance is also very important

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Слайд 8: genetic characteristics of population

Heterogeneity of population Genetical unity of population If a population is not evolving, the frequencies of each allele remain constant from one generation to the next generation

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Слайд 9: Heterogeneity of populations

A given population (as illustrated by different phenotypes) indicates that each individual has a different portion of the genes that exist in the gene pool. Because most species are diploid, each individual member of a population contains only two alleles for each locus. Therefore, a single individual has only some of the genes found in its population gene pool.

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Слайд 10: Genetical unity of populations

Each population possesses an iso- lated gene pool, which includes all possible alleles at each locus of each chromosome present in the breeding individuals of the population.

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Слайд 11: The Hardy-Weinberg law shows that in large populations, the process of inheritance does not by itself cause changes in allele frequencies, which remain constant from generation to generation

LARGE POPULATION SIZE ISOLATION NO MUTATION NO SELECTION RANDOM MATING

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Слайд 12: Most populations have a large reservoir of variability

Heterozygote advantage occurs when the heterozygote has a higher degree of fitness than either homozygote. Both alleles are maintained in the population. In frequency-dependent selection, a genotype’s selective value varies with its frequency of occurrence. Variation that confers no detectable selective advantage is called neutral variation. The neutralist-selectionist controversy is a debate among biologists over the relative importance of selection versus genetic drift in maintaining genetic variability.

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Слайд 13: EVOLUTION

RESISTANCE

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Слайд 14

Population genetics is a subfield of genetics that deals with genetic differences within and... Haldane also applied statistical analysis to real-world examples of natural selection, such as peppered moth... mutations can eventually cause the genetic assimilation of traits that were previously induced by the environment.

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Population genetics began as a reconciliation of  Mendelian inheritance  and  biostatistics  models.  Natural selection  will only cause evolution if there is enough  genetic variation  in a population. Before the discovery of  Mendelian genetics, one common hypothesis was  blending inheritance. But with blending inheritance, genetic variance would be rapidly lost, making evolution by natural or sexual selection implausible. The  Hardy–Weinberg principle  provides the solution to how variation is maintained in a population with Mendelian inheritance. According to this principle, the frequencies of alleles (variations in a gene) will remain constant in the absence of selection, mutation, migration and genetic drift.

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Слайд 19: for better understanding

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GhHOjC4oxh8 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SRWXEMlI0_U https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hOfRN0KihOU

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