Первый слайд презентации: Climate of Australia
The presentation is made by Alina Korytnaya the group : 21-KA
Australia's climate is governed mostly by its size and by the hot, sinking air of the subtropical high pressure belt. This moves north-west and north-east with the seasons. The climate is variable, with frequent droughts lasting several seasons, thought to be caused in part by the El Niño-Southern Oscillation.
Australia has a wide variety of climates due to its large geographical size. The largest part of Australia is desert or semi-arid. Only the south-east and south-west corners have a temperate climate and moderately fertile soil. The northern part of the country has a tropical climate, varying between grasslands and desert.
Because Australia is a medium-sized continent, separated from polar regions by the Southern Ocean, it is not subject to movements of frigid polar air during winter. Consequently, Australia's winter is relatively mild, with less contrast between summer and winter temperatures than in the northern continents.
Seasonal highs and lows can still be considerable. Temperatures have ranged from above 53 °C (127 °F) to well below 0 °C (32 °F). Minimum temperatures are moderated.
Australia is one of the continents most affected and experiences extensive droughts alongside considerable wet periods. Occasionally a dust storm will blanket a region and there are reports of the occasional tornado. Tropical cyclones, heat waves, bushfires and frosts in the country are also associated with the Southern Oscillation.
The tropical savannah zone of Northern Australia is warm to hot all year. Summers are hot in most of the country with average January maximum temperatures exceeding 30 °C over most of the mainland, except for high elevations. Winters are warm in the north and cool in the south, with nightly frosts common in inland areas south of the Tropic of Capricorn.
Average minimum temperatures in all seasons are highest in northern Australia and near the coastal areas, and are lowest in the elevated areas of the south-east. The highest average January minimum temperatures (near 27 °C) are found near the north-west coast, while in winter they exceed 20 °C at some coastal locations in northern Australia and on the Torres Strait and Tiwi Islands.
The highest maximums in Australia are recorded in two regions, the Pilbara and Gascoyne regions and the area extending from south-western Queensland across South Australia into south-eastern Western Australia. Many locations in this region have recorded temperatures exceeding 48 °C.
In Australia, snow falls frequently on the highlands near the east coast, in the states of Victoria, New South Wales and Tasmania and in the Australian Capital Territory. Snow is rare in the southernmost capitals like Melbourne and Hobart, falling less than once every five years, and in the other capitals it is unknown (however snow has fallen in the hill suburbs of Perth and Adelaide).