Слайд 2: Overview: Reconnaissance, Recognition, and Response
Barriers help an animal to defend itself from the many dangerous pathogens it may encounter. The immune system recognizes foreign bodies = “not self” and responds with the production of immune cells and proteins. Two major kinds of defense have evolved: innate immunity and acquired immunity.
How do immune cells of animals recognize foreign cells? 1.5 µm
Innate immunity is present before any exposure to pathogens and is effective from the time of birth. It involves nonspecific responses to pathogens. Innate immunity consists of external barriers plus internal cellular and chemical defenses.
Acquired immunity = adaptive immunity, develops after exposure to agents such as microbes, toxins, or other foreign substances. It involves a very specific response to pathogens.
Animal Immunity INNATE IMMUNITY Recognition of traits shared by broad ranges of pathogens, using a small set of receptors Non-specific • • Rapid response • Recognition of traits specific to particular pathogens, using a vast array of receptors • Slower response ACQUIRED IMMUNITY Pathogens (microorganisms and viruses) Barrier defenses : Skin Mucous membranes Secretions Internal defenses : Phagocytic cells Antimicrobial proteins Inflammatory response Natural killer cells Humoral response : Antibodies defend against infection in body fluids. Cell-mediated response : Cytotoxic lymphocytes defend against infection in body cells.
Слайд 7: For Innate Immunity, recognition and response rely on shared traits of pathogens
Both invertebrates and vertebrates depend on innate immunity to fight infection. Vertebrates also develop acquired immune defenses. The immune system recognizes bacteria and fungi by structures on their cell walls. An immune response varies with the class of pathogen encountered.
Слайд 8: Innate Immunity of Invertebrates
In insects, an exoskeleton made of chitin forms the first barrier to pathogens. The digestive system is protected by low pH and lysozyme, an enzyme that digests microbial cell walls. Hemocytes circulate within hemolymph and carry out phagocytosis, the ingestion and digestion of foreign substances including bacteria. Hemocytes also secrete antimicrobial peptides that disrupt the plasma membranes of bacteria.
Phagocytosis Microbes PHAGOCYTIC CELL Vacuole Lysosome Containing hydrolytic enzymes
Слайд 10: Innate Immunity Defenses of Vertebrates
The immune system of mammals is the best understood of the vertebrates. Innate defenses include barrier defenses, phagocytosis, antimicrobial peptides. Additional defenses are unique to vertebrates: the inflammatory response and natural killer cells.
Слайд 11: Barrier Defenses
Barrier defenses include the skin and mucous membranes of the respiratory, urinary, and reproductive tracts. Mucus traps and allows for the removal of microbes. Many body fluids including saliva, mucus, and tears are hostile to microbes. The low pH of skin and the digestive system prevents growth of microbes.
Слайд 12: Cellular Innate Defenses
White blood cells = leukocytes engulf pathogens in the body via phagocytosis. Groups of pathogens are recognized by TLR, Toll-like receptors.
TLR signaling EXTRACELLULAR FLUID Lipopolysaccharide Flagellin TLR4 TLR5 Helper protein TLR9 TLR3 WHITE BLOOD CELL VESICLE CpG DNA ds RNA Inflammatory responses
A white blood cell engulfs a microbe, then fuses with a lysosome to destroy the microbe. There are different types of phagocytic cells : Neutrophils engulf and destroy microbes. Macrophages are part of the lymphatic system and are found throughout the body. Eosinophils discharge destructive enzymes. Dendritic cells stimulate development of acquired immunity.
Lymphatic System Adenoid Tonsil Lymph nodes Spleen Peyer’s patches (small intestine) Appendix Lymphatic vessels Lymph node Masses of defensive cells Blood capillary Lymphatic vessel Tissue cells Interstitial fluid
Слайд 16: Antimicrobial Peptides and Proteins
Peptides and proteins function in innate defense by attacking microbes directly or impeding their reproduction. Interferon proteins provide innate defense against viruses and help activate macrophages. About 30 proteins make up the complement system, which causes lysis of invading cells and helps trigger inflammation.
Слайд 17: Inflammatory Responses
Following an injury, mast cells release histamine, which promotes changes in blood vessels ; this is part of the inflammatory response. These changes increase local blood supply and allow more phagocytes and antimicrobial proteins to enter tissues. Pus = a fluid rich in white blood cells, dead microbes, and cell debris, accumulates at the site of inflammation.
Major events in a local Inflammatory Response Pathogen Splinter Macrophage Mast cell Chemical signals Capillary Phagocytic cell Red blood cells Fluid Phagocytosis 1. 2. 3.
Inflammation can be either local or systemic (throughout the body). Fever is a systemic inflammatory response triggered by pyrogens released by macrophages, and toxins from pathogens. Septic shock is a life-threatening condition caused by an overwhelming inflammatory response.
Слайд 20: Natural Killer Cells
All body cells (except red blood cells) have a class I MHC protein on their surface. MHC = Major Histocompatibility Complex, part of the extracellular matrix. Class II MHC protein molecules are found on specialized cells Cancerous or infected cells no longer express this MHC protein; natural killer (NK) cells attack these damaged cells.
Слайд 21: Innate Immune System Evasion by Pathogens
Some pathogens avoid destruction by modifying their surface to prevent recognition or by resisting breakdown following phagocytosis. Tuberculosis (TB) is one such disease and kills more than a million people a year.
Слайд 22: In Acquired Immunity, lymphocyte receptors provide pathogen-specific recognition
White blood cells called lymphocytes recognize and respond to antigens, foreign molecules. Lymphocytes that mature in the thymus above the heart are called T cells, and those that mature in bone marrow are called B cells. Lymphocytes contribute to immunological memory, an enhanced response to a foreign molecule encountered previously. Cytokines are secreted by macrophages and dendritic cells to recruit and activate lymphocytes.
Слайд 23: Acquired Immunity = Active Immunity: Specific
B cells and T cells have receptor proteins that can bind to foreign molecules. Each individual lymphocyte is specialized to recognize a specific type of molecule. An antigen is any foreign molecule to which a lymphocyte responds. A single B cell or T cell has about 100,000 identical antigen receptors.
Antigen receptors on lymphocytes Antigen- binding site Antigen- binding site Antigen- binding site Disulfide bridge Variable regions Constant regions Transmembrane region Plasma membrane Light chain Heavy chains T cell chain chain Disulfide bridge Cytoplasm of T cell T cell receptor Cytoplasm of B cell B cell receptor B cell V V C C V V C C C C V V
All antigen receptors on a single lymphocyte recognize the same epitope, or antigenic determinant, on an antigen. B cells give rise to plasma cells, which secrete proteins called antibodies or immunoglobulins.
Epitopes = antigen determinants Antigen-binding sites Antigen- binding sites Epitopes (antigenic determinants) Antigen Antibody B Antibody C Antibody A C C C V V V V C
Слайд 27: The Antigen Receptors of B Cells and T Cells
B cell receptors bind to specific, intact antigens. The B cell receptor consists of two identical heavy chains and two identical light chains. The tips of the chains form a constant (C) region, and each chain contains a variable (V) region, so named because its amino acid sequence varies extensively from one B cell to another. Secreted antibodies, or immunoglobulins, are structurally similar to B cell receptors but lack transmembrane regions that anchor receptors in the plasma membrane.
Each T cell receptor consists of two different polypeptide chains. The tips of the chain form a variable (V) region; the rest is a constant (C) region. T cells can bind to an antigen that is free or on the surface of a pathogen. T cells bind to antigen fragments presented on a host cell. These antigen fragments are bound to cell-surface proteins called MHC molecules. MHC molecules are so named because they are encoded by a family of genes (many unique / specific) called the Major Histocompatibility Complex.
Слайд 29: The Role of the MHC
In infected cells, MHC molecules bind and transport antigen fragments to the cell surface, a process called antigen presentation. A nearby T cell can then detect the antigen fragment displayed on the cell’s surface. Depending on their source, peptide antigens are handled by different classes of MHC molecules.
Antigen Presentation by an MHC molecule Antigen Top view: binding surface exposed to antigen receptors Plasma membrane of infected cell Antigen Class I MHC molecule
Class I MHC molecules are found on almost all nucleated cells of the body. They display peptide antigens to cytotoxic T cells. Class II MHC molecules are found on specialized cells : macrophages, B cells, and activated T cells…
Interaction of T cells with Antigen-Presenting Cells Infected cell Antigen fragment Class I MHC molecule T cell receptor (a) Antigen associates with MHC molecule T cell recognizes combination Cytotoxic T cell (b) Helper T cell T cell receptor Class II MHC molecule Antigen fragment Antigen- presenting cell Microbe 1 1 1 2 2 2
Class II MHC molecules are located mainly on dendritic cells, macrophages, and B cells. Dendritic cells, macrophages, and B cells are antigen-presenting cells that display antigens on their surface to cytotoxic T cells and helper T cells.
Слайд 34: Lymphocyte Development
The acquired immune system has three important properties: Receptor Diversity Lack of reactivity against host cells Immunological Memory
Слайд 35: Generation of Lymphocyte Diversity by Gene Rearrangement
Differences in the variable region account for specificity of antigen receptors. The immunoglobulin ( Ig ) gene encodes one chain of the B cell receptor. Many different chains can be produced from the same Ig chain gene by rearrangement of the DNA. Rearranged DNA is transcribed and translated and the antigen receptor formed.
Слайд 36: Origin of Self-Tolerance
Antigen receptors are generated by random rearrangement of DNA. As lymphocytes mature in bone marrow or the thymus, they are tested for self-reactivity. Lymphocytes with receptors specific for the body’s own molecules are destroyed by apoptosis, or rendered nonfunctional.
Слайд 37: Amplifying Lymphocytes by Clonal Selection
In the body there are few lymphocytes with antigen receptors for any particular epitope. The binding of a mature lymphocyte to an antigen induces the lymphocyte to divide rapidly. This proliferation of lymphocytes is called clonal selection. Two types of clones are produced: short-lived activated effector cells (fight current battle) and long-lived memory cells … for future attacks by same pathogen.
Clonal Selection of B cells B cells that differ in antigen specificity Antibody molecules Antigen receptor Antigen molecules Clone of memory cells Clone of plasma cells = effectors
The first exposure to a specific antigen represents the primary immune response. During this time, effector B cells = plasma cells are generated, and T cells are activated to their effector forms. In the secondary immune response = memory cells facilitate a faster, more efficient response.
Antibodies to A Antibodies to B Secondary immune response to antigen A produces antibodies to A. Primary immune response to antigen B produces antibodies to B. Primary immune response to antigen A produces antibodies to A. Antibody concentration (arbitrary units) Exposure to antigen A Exposure to antigens A and B Time (days) 10 4 10 3 10 2 10 1 10 0 0 7 14 21 28 35 42 49 56
Слайд 41: Acquired immunity defends against infection of body cells and fluids
Acquired immunity has two branches : the humoral immune response and the cell-mediated immune response. Humoral immune response involves activation and clonal selection of B cells, resulting in production of secreted antibodies. Cell-mediated immune response involves activation and clonal selection of cytotoxic T cells. Helper T cells aid both responses.
Acquired Immune Response Humoral (antibody-mediated) immune response B cell Plasma cells Cell-mediated immune response Key Stimulates Gives rise to + + + + + + + Memory B cells Antigen (1st exposure) Engulfed by Antigen- presenting cell Memory Helper T cells Helper T cell Cytotoxic T cell Memory Cytotoxic T cells Active Cytotoxic T cells Antigen (2nd exposure) Secreted antibodies Defend against extracellular pathogens by binding to antigens, thereby neutralizing pathogens or making them better targets for phagocytes and complement proteins. Defend against intracellular pathogens and cancer by binding to and lysing the infected cells or cancer cells. + + +
Acquired Immune Response Key Stimulates Gives rise to + Memory Helper T cells Antigen- presenting cell Helper T cell Engulfed by Antigen (1st exposure) + + + + + + Defend against extracellular pathogens Memory B cells Antigen (2nd exposure) Plasma cells B cell Secreted antibodies Humoral (antibody-mediated) immune response
Acquired Immune Response Cell-mediated immune response Defend against intracellular pathogens Active Cytotoxic T cells Memory Cytotoxic T cells Memory Helper T cells Antigen- presenting cell Antigen (2nd exposure) Helper T cell Engulfed by Antigen (1st exposure) Cytotoxic T cell Key Stimulates Gives rise to + + + + + + +
Слайд 45: Helper T Cells : Respond to Nearly All Antigens
A surface protein called CD4 binds the class II MHC molecule. This binding keeps the helper T cell joined to the antigen-presenting cell while activation occurs. Activated helper T cells secrete cytokines that stimulate other lymphocytes. Positive Feedback in the Immune System enhances the process until some endpoint or maximum rate is reached.
The central role of helper T cells in humoral and cell-mediated immune responses Antigen- presenting cell Peptide antigen Cell-mediated immunity = attack on infected cells. Class II MHC molecule CD4 TCR (T cell receptor) Helper T cell Humoral immunity = secretion of antibodies by plasma cells. Cytotoxic T cell Cytokines Positive Feedback … B cell Bacterium + + + +
Слайд 47: Cytotoxic T Cells: A Response to Infected Cells
Cytotoxic T cells are the effector cells in cell-mediated immune response. Cytotoxic T cells make CD8, a surface protein that greatly enhances interaction between a target cell and a cytotoxic T cell. Binding to a class I MHC complex on an infected cell activates a cytotoxic T cell and makes it an active killer. The activated cytotoxic T cell secretes proteins that destroy the infected target cell.
The killing action of cytotoxic T cells Cytotoxic T cell Perforin Granzymes TCR CD8 Class I MHC molecule Target cell Peptide antigen Pore Released cytotoxic T cell Dying target cell 1. 2. 3. lysis
Слайд 49: B Cells: A Response to Extracellular Pathogens
The humoral response is characterized by secretion of antibodies by B cells. Activation of B cells is aided by cytokines and antigen binding to helper T cells. Clonal selection of B cells generates antibody-secreting plasma cells, the effector cells of humoral immunity. Positive Feedback …
B cell activation in the humoral immune response Antigen-presenting cell Endoplasmic reticulum of plasma cell Secreted antibody molecules Bacterium B cell Peptide antigen Class II MHC molecule TCR CD4 Helper T cell Activated helper T cell Cytokines Clone of memory B cells Clone of plasma cells 2 µm +
Слайд 51: Antibody Classes
The five major classes of antibodies, or immunoglobulins, differ in distribution and function. Polyclonal antibodies are the products of many different clones of B cells following exposure to a microbial antigen. Monoclonal antibodies are prepared from a single clone of B cells grown in culture.
The five antibody, or immunoglobulin (Ig), classes Class of Immuno- globulin (Antibody) IgG (monomer) IgM (pentamer) J chain IgA (dimer) IgE (monomer) IgD (monomer) Trans- membrane region J chain Secretory component Distribution Function First Ig class produced after initial exposure to antigen; then its concentration in the blood decl ines Promotes neutraliza- tion and cross- linking of antigens; very effective in complement system activation Present in secretions such as tears, saliva, mucus, and breast milk Only Ig class that crosses placenta, thus conferring passive immunity on fetus Triggers release from mast cells and basophils of hista- mine and other chemicals that cause allergic reactions Present primarily on surface of B cells that have not been exposed to antigens Acts as antigen receptor in the antigen-stimulated proliferation and differentiation of B cells (clonal selection) Most abundant Ig class in blood; also present in tissue fluids Promotes opsoniza- tion, neutralization, and cross-linking of antigens; less effec- tive in activation of complement system than IgM Provides localized defense of mucous membranes by cross-linking and neutralization of antigens Presence in breast milk confers passive immunity on nursing infant Present in blood at low concen- trations
Distribution Class of Immuno- globulin (Antibody) IgM (pentamer) J chain First Ig class produced after initial exposure to antigen; then its concentration in the blood declines Promotes neutraliza- tion and cross- linking of antigens; very effective in complement system activation Function
Distribution Function Class of Immuno- globulin (Antibody) IgG (monomer) Most abundant Ig class in blood; also present in tissue fluids Promotes opsoniza- tion, neutralization, and cross-linking of antigens; less effec- tive in activation of complement system than IgM Only Ig class that crosses placenta, thus conferring passive immunity on fetus
Distribution Function Class of Immuno- globulin (Antibody) IgA (dimer) J chain Secretory component Present in secretions such as tears, saliva, mucus, and breast milk Provides localized defense of mucous membranes by cross-linking and neutralization of antigens Presence in breast milk confers passive immunity on nursing infant
Distribution Function Class of Immuno- globulin (Antibody) IgE (monomer) Present in blood at low concen- trations Triggers release from mast cells and basophils of hista- mine and other chemicals that cause allergic reactions
Distribution Function Class of Immuno- globulin (Antibody) IgD (monomer) Trans- membrane region Present primarily on surface of B cells that have not been exposed to antigens Acts as antigen receptor in the antigen-stimulated proliferation and differentiation of B cells (clonal selection)
Слайд 58: The Role of Antibodies in Immunity
Neutralization occurs when a pathogen can no longer infect a host because it is bound to an antibody. Opsonization occurs when antibodies bound to antigens increase phagocytosis. Antibodies together with proteins of the complement system generate a membrane attack complex and cell lysis.
Antibody-mediated mechanisms of antigen disposal Viral neutralization Virus Opsonization Bacterium Macrophage Activation of complement system and pore formation Complement proteins Formation of membrane attack complex Flow of water and ions Pore Foreign cell
Слайд 60: Active Immunization
Active immunity develops naturally in response to an infection. It can also develop following/ from immunization, also called vaccination. In immunization, a nonpathogenic form of a microbe or part of a microbe elicits an immune response to an immunological memory.
Passive immunity provides immediate, short-term protection. It is conferred naturally when IgG crosses the placenta from mother to fetus or when IgA passes from mother to infant in breast milk. It can also be conferred artificially by injecting antibodies into a nonimmune person. Passive Immunity
Passive immunization of an infant occurs during breast-feeding
Слайд 63: Immune Rejection
Cells transferred from one person to another can be attacked by immune defenses. This complicates blood transfusions or the transplant of tissues or organs. MHC molecules are different among genetically nonidentical individuals. Differences in MHC molecules stimulate rejection of tissue grafts and organ transplants.
Chances of successful transplantation increase if donor and recipient MHC tissue types are well matched. Immunosuppressive drugs facilitate transplantation. Lymphocytes in bone marrow transplants may cause the donor tissue to reject the recipient.
Слайд 65: Blood Groups
Antigens on red blood cells surface determine whether a person has blood type A (A antigen), B (B antigen), AB (both A and B antigens), or O (neither antigen). Antibodies to nonself blood types exist in the body. Transfusion with incompatible blood leads to destruction of the transfused cells. Recipient-donor combinations can be fatal or safe.
Слайд 66: Disruption in immune system function can elicit or exacerbate disease
Some pathogens have evolved to diminish the effectiveness of host immune responses. If the delicate balance of the immune system is disrupted, effects range from minor to often fatal.
Слайд 67: Allergies
Allergies are exaggerated (hypersensitive) responses to antigens called allergens. In localized allergies such as hay fever, IgE antibodies produced after first exposure to an allergen attach to receptors on mast cells.
Mast cells, IgE, and the allergic response Allergen IgE Granule Mast cell Histamine
The next time the allergen enters the body, it binds to mast cell–associated IgE molecules. Mast cells release histamine and other mediators that cause vascular changes leading to typical allergy symptoms. An acute allergic response can lead to anaphylactic shock, a life-threatening reaction that can occur within seconds of allergen exposure.
Слайд 70: Autoimmune Diseases
In individuals with autoimmune diseases, the immune system loses tolerance for self and turns against certain molecules of the body. Autoimmune diseases include systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, and multiple sclerosis.
X-ray of a hand deformed by rheumatoid arthritis
Слайд 72: Exertion, Stress, and the Immune System
Moderate exercise improves immune system function. Psychological stress has been shown to disrupt hormonal, nervous, and immune systems.
Слайд 73: Immunodeficiency Diseases
Inborn immunodeficiency results from hereditary or developmental defects that prevent proper functioning of innate, humoral, and/or cell-mediated defenses. Acquired immunodeficiency results from exposure to chemical and biological agents. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is caused by a virus.
Слайд 74: Acquired Immune System Evasion by Pathogens
Pathogens have evolved mechanisms to attack immune responses. Through antigenic variation, some pathogens are able to change epitope expression and prevent recognition. The human influenza virus mutates rapidly, and new flu vaccines must be made each year. Human viruses occasionally exchange genes with the viruses of domesticated animals. This poses a danger as human immune systems are unable to recognize the new viral strain.
Слайд 75: Latency
Some viruses may remain in a host in an inactive state called latency. Herpes simplex viruses can be present in a human host without causing symptoms.
Слайд 76: Attack on the Immune System: HIV
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infects helper T cells. The loss of helper T cells impairs both the humoral and cell-mediated immune responses and leads to AIDS. HIV eludes the immune system because of antigenic variation and an ability to remain latent while integrated into host DNA.
The progress of an untreated HIV infection Latency Relative antibody concentration AIDS Helper T cell concentration in blood (cells/mm 3 ) Helper T cell concentration Relative HIV concentration Years after untreated infection 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0 200 400 600 800
People with AIDS are highly susceptible to opportunistic infections and cancers that take advantage of an immune system in collapse. The spread of HIV is a worldwide problem. The best approach for slowing this spread is education about practices that transmit the virus.
Слайд 79: Cancer and Immunity
The frequency of certain cancers increases when the immune response is impaired. Two suggested explanations are Immune system normally suppresses cancerous cells Increased inflammation increases the risk of cancer
Review Stem cell Cell division and gene rearrangement Antigen Clonal selection Elimination of self-reactive B cells Formation of activated cell populations Antibody Microbe Memory cells Effector B cells Receptors bind to antigens
Слайд 81: You should now be able to:
Distinguish between innate and acquired immunity. Name and describe four types of phagocytic cells. Describe the inflammation response.
Distinguish between the following pairs of terms: antigens and antibodies; antigen and epitope; B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes; antibodies and B cell receptors; primary and secondary immune responses; humoral and cell-mediated response; active and passive immunity. Explain how B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes recognize specific antigens. Explain why the antigen receptors of lymphocytes are tested for self-reactivity.
Describe clonal selection and distinguish between effector cells and memory cells. Describe the cellular basis for immunological memory. Explain how a single antigen can provoke a robust humoral response. Compare the processes of neutralization and opsonization.
Последний слайд презентации: Chapter 43
Describe the role of MHC in the rejection of tissue transplants. Describe an allergic reaction, including the roles of IgE, mast cells, and histamine. Describe some of the mechanisms that pathogens have evolved to thwart the immune response of their hosts. List strategies that can reduce the risk of HIV transmission.