Слайд 2: Overview: Trading Places
Every organism must exchange materials with its environment. Exchanges ultimately occur at the cellular level. In unicellular organisms, these exchanges occur directly with the environment.
For most cells making up multicellular organisms, direct exchange with the environment is not possible. Gills are an example of a specialized exchange system in animals. Internal transport and gas exchange are functionally related in most animals.
How does a feathery fringe help this animal survive?
Слайд 5: Circulatory systems link exchange surfaces with cells throughout the body
In small and/or thin animals, cells can exchange materials directly with the surrounding medium. In most animals, transport systems connect the organs of exchange with the body cells. Most complex animals have internal transport systems that circulate fluid.
Слайд 6: Gastrovascular Cavities
Simple animals, such as cnidarians, have a body wall that is only two cells thick and that encloses a gastrovascular cavity. This cavity functions in both digestion and distribution of substances throughout the body. Some cnidarians, such as jellies, have elaborate gastrovascular cavities. Flatworms have a gastrovascular cavity and a large surface area to volume ratio.
Internal transport in gastrovascular cavities Circular canal Radial canal Mouth (a) The moon jelly Aurelia, a cnidarian The planarian Dugesia, a flatworm (b) Mouth Pharynx 2 mm 5 cm
Слайд 8: Open and Closed Circulatory Systems
More complex animals have either open or closed circulatory systems. Both systems have three basic components: A circulatory fluid = blood or hemolymph. A set of tubes = blood vessels. A muscular pump = the heart.
In insects, other arthropods, and most molluscs, blood bathes the organs directly in an open circulatory system. In an open circulatory system, there is no distinction between blood and interstitial fluid, and this general body fluid is more correctly called hemolymph.
In a closed circulatory system, the blood is confined to vessels and is distinct from the interstitial fluid. Closed systems are more efficient at transporting circulatory fluids to tissues and cells.
Open and closed circulatory systems Heart Hemolymph in sinuses surrounding organs Heart Interstitial fluid Small branch vessels In each organ Blood Dorsal vessel (main heart) Auxiliary hearts Ventral vessels (b) A closed circulatory system (a) An open circulatory system Tubular heart Pores
Слайд 12: Organization of Vertebrate Closed Circulatory Systems
Humans and other vertebrates have a closed circulatory system, often called the cardiovascular system. The three main types of blood vessels are: arteries - away from the heart. veins - toward the heart. capillaries - exchange with body cells.
Arteries branch into arterioles and carry blood to capillaries. Networks of capillaries called capillary beds are the sites of chemical exchange between the blood and interstitial fluid. Venules converge into veins and return blood from capillaries to the heart.
Vertebrate hearts contain two or more chambers. Blood enters through an atrium and is pumped out through a ventricle. Atria - receive blood Ventricles - pump blood
Слайд 15: Single Circulation
Bony fishes, rays, and sharks have single circulation with a two-chambered heart. In single circulation, blood leaving the heart passes through two capillary beds before returning.
Single circulation in fishes Artery Ventricle Atrium Heart Vein Systemic capillaries Systemic circulation Gill circulation Gill capillaries
Слайд 17: Double Circulation
Amphibian, reptiles, and mammals have double circulation. Oxygen-poor and oxygen-rich blood are pumped separately from the right and left sides of the heart.
Double circulation in vertebrates Amphibians Lung and skin capillaries Pulmocutaneous circuit Atrium (A) Ventricle (V) Atrium (A) Systemic circuit Right Left Systemic capillaries Reptiles Lung capillaries Pulmonary circuit Right systemic aorta Right Left Left systemic aorta Systemic capillaries A A V V Systemic capillaries Pulmonary circuit Systemic circuit Right Left A A V V Lung capillaries Mammals and Birds
In reptiles and mammals, oxygen-poor blood flows through the pulmonary circuit to pick up oxygen through the lungs. In amphibians, oxygen-poor blood flows through a pulmocutaneous circuit to pick up oxygen through the lungs and skin. Oxygen-rich blood delivers oxygen through the systemic circuit. Double circulation maintains higher blood pressure in the organs than does single circulation.
Слайд 20: Adaptations of Double Circulatory Systems
Amphibians: Frogs / amphibians have a three-chambered heart : 2 atria and 1 ventricle. The ventricle pumps blood into a forked artery that splits the ventricle’s output into the pulmocutaneous circuit and the systemic circuit. Underwater, blood flow to the lungs is nearly shut off.
Слайд 21: Reptiles (Except Birds)
Turtles, snakes, and lizards have a three-chambered heart : two atria and one ventricle. In alligators, caimans, and other crocodilians a septum - partially or fully divides the ventricle. Reptiles have double circulation, with a pulmonary circuit - lungs and a systemic circuit.
Слайд 22: Mammals
Mammals and birds have a four-chambered heart with two atria and two ventricles. The left side of the heart pumps and receives only oxygen-rich blood, while the right side receives and pumps only oxygen-poor blood. Mammals and birds are endotherms and require more O 2 than ectotherms. RA --> RV --> LUNGS --> LA --> LV --> Body
Слайд 23: Coordinated cycles of heart contraction drive double circulation in mammals
Blood begins its flow with the right ventricle pumping blood to the lungs. In the lungs, the blood loads O 2 and unloads CO 2 Oxygen-rich blood from the lungs enters the heart at the left atrium and is pumped through the aorta to the body tissues by the left ventricle. The aorta provides blood to the heart through the coronary arteries.
Blood returns to the heart through the superior vena cava (deoxygenated blood from head, neck, and forelimbs) and inferior vena cava (deoxygenated blood from trunk and hind limbs). The superior vena cava and inferior vena cava flow into the Right Atrium - RA.
mammalian cardiovascular system Superior vena cava Returns deoxygenated blood from body to heart RA Pulmonary artery Capillaries of right Lung GAS EXCHANGE 3 7 3 8 9 2 4 11 5 1 10 Aorta Pulmonary vein Right Atrium RA - Receives deoxygenated blood from body Right Ventricle RV - Pumps blood to lungs Inferior vena cava Returns deoxygenated blood from body to heart RA Capillaries of abdominal organs and hind limbs EXCHANGE with body cells Pulmonary vein Carries oxygenated blood to heart: LA Left Atrium - LA Receives oxygenated blood from lungs Left Ventricle - LV Pumps oxygenated blood to body Aorta = main artery to body for Systemic Circulation Capillaries of left Lung GAS EXCHANGE Pulmonary artery Carries deoxygenated blood to lungs Capillaries of head and Forelimbs - EXCHANGE
Слайд 26: The Mammalian Heart : A Closer Look
A closer look at the mammalian heart provides a better understanding of double circulation. RIGHT side = deoxygenated blood from body pumped to lungs. LUNGS = gas exchange. LEFT side = oxygenated blood from lungs pumped to body.
Mammalian Heart Pulmonary artery - to lungs Right Atrium RA Receives Deoxygented Blood from body Semilunar valve Atrioventricular valve Right Ventricle RV Pumps to lungs for gas exchange Left Ventricle LV Pumps oxygenated blood to body via aorta Atrioventricular valve Left Atrium LA Receives oxgenated blood from lungs Semilunar valve Pulmonary veins - from lungs to heart Aorta - systemic circulation
The heart contracts and relaxes in a rhythmic cycle called the cardiac cycle. The contraction, or pumping, phase is called systole. The relaxation, or filling, phase is called diastole. Blood Pressure = systolic / diastolic
Cardiac cycle Semilunar valves closed 0.4 sec AV valves open Atrial and ventricular diastole 1 2 0.1 sec Atrial systole; ventricular diastole 3 0.3 sec Semilunar valves open AV valves closed Ventricular systole; atrial diastole
The heart rate, also called the pulse, is the number of beats per minute. The stroke volume is the amount of blood pumped in a single contraction. The cardiac output is the volume of blood pumped into the systemic circulation per minute and depends on both the heart rate and stroke volume.
Four valves prevent backflow of blood in the heart: The atrioventricular (AV) valves separate each atrium and ventricle. The semilunar valves control blood flow to the aorta and the pulmonary artery. The “lub-dup” sound of a heart beat is caused by the recoil of blood against the AV valves (lub) then against the semilunar (dup) valves. Backflow of blood through a defective valve causes a heart murmur.
Слайд 32: Maintaining the Heart’s Rhythmic Beat
Some cardiac muscle cells are self-excitable = they contract without any signal from the nervous system. The sinoatrial (SA) node, or pacemaker, sets the rate and timing at which cardiac muscle cells contract. Impulses from the SA node travel to the atrioventricular (AV) node. At the AV node, the impulses are delayed and then travel to the Purkinje fibers that make the ventricles contract. Impulses that travel during the cardiac cycle can be recorded as an electrocardiogram ( ECG or EKG ). The pacemaker is influenced by nerves, hormones, body temperature, and exercise.
Control of heart rhythm Signals spread throughout ventricles. 4 Purkinje Fibers: ventricles contract Pacemaker generates wave of signals to contract. 1 SA node (pacemaker) ECG Signals are delayed at AV node. 2 AV node Signals pass to heart apex. 3 Bundle branches Heart apex
Слайд 34: Patterns of blood pressure and flow reflect the structure and arrangement of blood vessels
The physical principles that govern movement of water in plumbing systems also influence the functioning of animal circulatory systems. The epithelial layer that lines blood vessels is called the endothelium.
Structure of blood vessels Artery Vein SEM 100 µm Endothelium Artery Smooth muscle Connective tissue Capillary Basal lamina Endothelium Smooth muscle Connective tissue Valve Vein Arteriole Venule Red blood cell Capillary 15 µm LM
Capillaries have thin walls, the endothelium plus its basement membrane, to facilitate the exchange of materials. Arteries and veins have an endothelium, smooth muscle, and connective tissue. Arteries have thicker walls than veins to accommodate the high pressure of blood pumped from the heart. In the thinner-walled veins, blood flows back to the heart mainly as a result of muscle action.
Слайд 37: Blood Flow Velocity
Physical laws governing movement of fluids through pipes affect blood flow and blood pressure. Velocity of blood flow is slowest in the capillary beds, as a result of the high resistance and large total cross-sectional area. Blood flow in capillaries is necessarily slow for exchange of materials.
The interrelationship of cross-sectional area of blood vessels, blood flow velocity, and blood pressure. 5,000 4,000 3,000 2,000 1,000 0 0 50 40 30 20 10 120 80 100 60 40 20 0 Area (cm 2 ) Velocity (cm/sec) Pressure (mm Hg) Aorta Arteries Arterioles Capillaries Venules Veins Venae cavae Diastolic pressure Systolic pressure
Слайд 39: Blood Pressure
Blood pressure is the hydrostatic pressure that blood exerts against the wall of a vessel. In rigid vessels blood pressure is maintained; less rigid vessels deform and blood pressure is lost.
Слайд 40: Changes in Blood Pressure During the Cardiac Cycle
Systolic pressure is the pressure in the arteries during ventricle contraction /systole; it is the highest pressure in the arteries. Diastolic pressure is the pressure in the arteries during relaxation /diastole; it is lower than systolic pressure. A pulse is the rhythmic bulging of artery walls with each heartbeat.
Слайд 41: Regulation of Blood Pressure
Blood pressure is determined by cardiac output and peripheral resistance due to constriction of arterioles. Vasoconstriction is the contraction of smooth muscle in arteriole walls; it increases blood pressure. Vasodilation is the relaxation of smooth muscles in the arterioles; it causes blood pressure to fall.
Vasoconstriction and vasodilation help maintain adequate blood flow as the body’s demands change. The peptide endothelin is an important inducer of vasoconstriction. Blood pressure is generally measured for an artery in the arm at the same height as the heart. Blood pressure for a healthy 20 year old at rest is 120 mm Hg at systole / 70 mm Hg at diastole.
Question: How do endothelial cells control vasoconstriction? Ser RESULTS Ser Ser Cys Cys —NH 3 + Leu Met Asp Lys Glu Cys Val Tyr Phe Cys His Leu Asp Ile Ile Trp —COO – Endothelin Parent polypeptide Trp Cys Endothelin 53 73 1 203
Measurement of blood pressure: sphygmomanometer Pressure in cuff greater than 120 mm Hg Rubber cuff inflated with air Artery closed 120 120 Pressure in cuff drops below 120 mm Hg Sounds audible in stethoscope Pressure in cuff below 70 mm Hg 70 Blood pressure reading: 120/70 Sounds stop
Fainting is caused by inadequate blood flow to the head. Animals with longer necks require a higher systolic pressure to pump blood a greater distance against gravity. Blood is moved through veins by smooth muscle contraction, skeletal muscle contraction, and expansion of the vena cava with inhalation. One-way valves in veins / heart prevent backflow of blood.
Blood flow in veins Direction of blood flow in vein (toward heart) Valve (open) Skeletal muscle Valve (closed)
Слайд 47: Capillary Function
Capillaries in major organs are usually filled to capacity. Blood supply varies in many other sites. Two mechanisms regulate distribution of blood in capillary beds : Contraction of the smooth muscle layer in the wall of an arteriole constricts the vessel. Precapillary sphincters control flow of blood between arterioles and venules.
Blood flow in capillary beds Precapillary sphincters Thoroughfare channel Arteriole Capillaries Venule (a) Sphincters relaxed (b) Sphincters contracted Arteriol e Venule
The critical exchange of substances between the blood and interstitial fluid takes place across the thin endothelial walls of the capillaries. The difference between blood pressure and osmotic pressure drives fluids out of capillaries at the arteriole end and into capillaries at the venule end.
Fluid exchange between capillaries and the interstitial fluid Body tissue Capillary INTERSTITIAL FLUID Net fluid movement out Direction of blood flow Net fluid movement in Blood pressure = hydrostatic pressure Inward flow Outward flow Osmotic pressure Arterial end of capillary Venous end Pressure
Слайд 51: Fluid Return by the Lymphatic System
The lymphatic system - returns fluid that leaks out in the capillary beds … restoring filtered fluid to blood maintains homeostasis. This system aids in body defense. Fluid, called lymph, reenters the circulation directly at the venous end of the capillary bed and indirectly through the lymphatic system. The lymphatic system drains into neck veins.
Lymph nodes are organs that produce phagocytic white blood cells and filter lymph - an important role in the body’s defense. Edema is swelling caused by disruptions in the flow of lymph.
Слайд 53: Blood Composition and Function
Blood consists of several kinds of blood cells suspended in a liquid matrix called plasma. The cellular elements: red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets occupy about 45% of the volume of blood.
Composition of mammalian blood Plasma 55% Constituent Major functions Water Solvent for carrying other substances Ions (blood electrolytes ) Osmotic balance, pH buffering, and regulation of membrane permeability Sodium Potassium Calcium Magnesium Chloride Bicarbonate Osmotic balance pH buffering Clotting Defense Plasma proteins Albumin Fibrinogen Immunoglobulins (antibodies) Substances transported by blood Nutrients (such as glucose, fatty acids, vitamins) Waste products of metabolism Respiratory gases (O 2 and CO 2 ) Hormones Separated blood elements Cellular elements 45% Cell type Functions Number per µL (mm 3 ) of blood Erythrocytes (red blood cells) 5–6 million Transport oxygen and help transport carbon dioxide Leukocytes (white blood cells) 5,000–10,000 Defense and immunity Basophil Neutrophil Eosinophil Lymphocyte Monocyte Platelets Blood clotting 250,000– 400,000
Слайд 55: Plasma
Blood plasma is about 90% water. Among its solutes are inorganic salts in the form of dissolved ions, sometimes called electrolytes. Another important class of solutes is the plasma proteins, which influence blood pH, osmotic pressure, and viscosity. Various plasma proteins function in lipid transport, immunity, and blood clotting. Plasma transports nutrients, gases, and cell waste.
Слайд 56: Cellular Elements
Suspended in blood plasma are two types of cells: Red blood cells rbc = erythrocytes, transport oxygen. White blood cells wbc = leukocytes, function in defense. Platelets are fragments of cells that are involved in blood clotting.
Red blood cells, or erythrocytes, are by far the most numerous blood cells. They transport oxygen throughout the body. They contain hemoglobin, the iron-containing protein that transports oxygen. Erythrocytes - Oxygen Transport
Слайд 58: Leukocytes - Defense
There are five major types of white blood cells, or leukocytes : monocytes, neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils, and lymphocytes. They function in defense by phagocytizing bacteria and debris or by producing antibodies. They are found both in and outside of the circulatory system.
Слайд 59: Platelets - Blood Clotting
Platelets are fragments of cells and function in blood clotting. When the endothelium of a blood vessel is damaged, the clotting mechanism begins. A cascade of complex reactions converts fibrinogen to fibrin, forming a clot. A blood clot formed within a blood vessel is called a thrombus and can block blood flow.
Collagen fibers Platelet plug Platelet releases chemicals that make nearby platelets sticky Clotting factors from: Platelets Damaged cells Plasma (factors include calcium, vitamin K) Prothrombin Thrombin Fibrinogen Fibrin 5 µm Fibrin clot Red blood cell Blood clotting
Слайд 61: Stem Cells and the Replacement of Cellular Elements
The cellular elements of blood wear out and are replaced constantly throughout a person’s life. Erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets all develop from a common source of stem cells in the red marrow of bones. The hormone erythropoietin (EPO) stimulates erythrocyte production when oxygen delivery is low.
Differentiation of Blood Cells Stem cells in bone marrow Myeloid stem cells Lymphoid stem cells Lymphocytes B cells T cells Erythrocytes Platelets Neutrophils Basophils Eosinophils Monocytes
Слайд 63: Cardiovascular Disease = Disorders of the Heart and the Blood Vessels
One type of cardiovascular disease, atherosclerosis, is caused by the buildup of plaque deposits within arteries. A heart attack is the death of cardiac muscle tissue resulting from blockage of one or more coronary arteries. A stroke is the death of nervous tissue in the brain, usually resulting from rupture or blockage of arteries in the brain /head.
Atherosclerosis Connective tissue Smooth muscle Endothelium Plaque (a) Normal artery (b) Partly clogged artery 50 µm 250 µm
Слайд 65: Treatment and Diagnosis of Cardiovascular Disease
Cholesterol is a major contributor to atherosclerosis. Low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) = “ bad cholesterol,” are associated with plaque formation. High-density lipoproteins (HDLs) = “ good cholesterol,” reduce the deposition of cholesterol. Hypertension = high blood pressure, promotes atherosclerosis and increases the risk of heart attack and stroke. Hypertension can be reduced by dietary changes, exercise, and/or medication.
Слайд 66: Gas exchange occurs across specialized respiratory surfaces
Gas exchange supplies oxygen for cellular respiration and disposes of carbon dioxide. Gases diffuse down pressure gradients in the lungs and other organs as a result of differences in partial pressure. Partial pressure is the pressure exerted by a particular gas in a mixture of gases. A gas diffuses from a region of higher partial pressure to a region of lower partial pressure: H --> L In the lungs and tissues, O 2 and CO 2 diffuse from where their partial pressures are higher to where they are lower.
Слайд 67: Respiratory Media
Animals can use air or water as a source of O 2, or respiratory medium. In a given volume, there is less O 2 available in water than in air. Obtaining O 2 from water requires greater efficiency than air breathing.
Слайд 68: Respiratory Surfaces
Animals require large, moist respiratory surfaces for exchange of gases between their cells and the respiratory medium, either air or water. Gas exchange across respiratory surfaces takes place by diffusion. Respiratory surfaces vary by animal and can include the outer surface, skin, gills, tracheae, and lungs.
Gills are outfoldings of the body that create a large surface area for gas exchange Parapodium (functions as gill) (a) Marine worm Gills (b) Crayfish (c) Sea star Tube foot Coelom Gills
Ventilation moves the respiratory medium over the respiratory surface. Aquatic animals move through water or move water over their gills for ventilation. Fish gills use a countercurrent exchange system, where blood flows in the opposite direction to water passing over the gills ; blood is always less saturated with O 2 than the water it meets… maximizes diffusion.
Structure and function of fish gills Anatomy of gills Gil l arch Water flow Operculum Gill arch Gill filament organization Blood vessels Oxygen-poor blood Oxygen-rich blood Fluid flow through gill filament Lamella Blood flow through capillaries in lamella Water flow between lamellae Countercurrent exchange P O 2 (mm Hg) in water P O 2 (mm Hg) in blood Net diffusion of O 2 from water to blood 150 120 90 60 30 110 80 20 Gill filaments 50 140
Слайд 72: Tracheal Systems in Insects
The tracheal system of insects consists of tiny branching tubes that penetrate the body. The tracheal tubes supply O 2 directly to body cells. The respiratory and circulatory systems are separate. Larger insects must ventilate their tracheal system to meet O 2 demands.
Tracheal systems Air sacs Tracheae = air tubes External opening: spiracles Body cell Air sac Tracheole Tracheoles Mitochondria Muscle fiber 2.5 µm Body wall Trachea Air external openings spiracles
Слайд 74: Lungs = Infoldings of the body surface
The circulatory system (open or closed) transports gases between the lungs and the rest of the body. The size and complexity of lungs correlate with an animal’s metabolic rate.
Слайд 75: Mammalian Respiratory Systems: A Closer Look
A system of branching ducts / air tubes conveys air to the lungs. Air inhaled through the nostrils --> pharynx --> larynx --> trachea --> bronchi --> bronchioles --> alveoli = site of gas exchange. Exhaled air passes over the vocal cords to create sounds. Alveoli are wrapped by capillaries for GAS EXCHANGE.
Mammalian Respiratory System Pharynx Larynx (Esophagus) Trachea Right lung Bronchus Bronchiole Diaphragm Heart SEM Left lung Nasal cavity Terminal bronchiole Branch of pulmonary vein (oxygen-rich blood) Branch of pulmonary artery (oxygen-poor blood) Alveoli Colorized SEM 50 µm 50 µm
Слайд 77: Breathing Ventilates the Lungs by Inhalation and Exhalation of Air
Amphibians, such as a frog, ventilates its lungs by positive pressure breathing, which forces air down the trachea. Mammals ventilate by negative pressure breathing, which pulls air into the lungs by varying volume / air pressure. Lung volume increases as the rib muscles and diaphragm contract. The tidal volume is the volume of air inhaled with each breath. The maximum tidal volume is the vital capacity. After exhalation, residual volume of air remains in the lungs.
Negative pressure breathing: H --> L Lung Diaphragm Air inhaled Rib cage expands as rib muscles contract Rib cage gets smaller as rib muscles relax Air exhaled EXHALATION Diaphragm relaxes (moves up) Volume decreases Pressure increases Air rushes out INHALATION Diaphragm contracts (moves down) Volume increases Pressure decreases Air rushes in
Слайд 79: How a Bird Breathes
Birds have eight or nine air sacs that function as bellows that keep air flowing through the lungs. Air passes through the lungs in one direction only. Every exhalation completely renews the air in the lungs.
The Avian Respiratory System Anterior air sacs Posterior air sacs Lungs Air Lungs Air 1 mm Trachea Air tubes (parabronchi) in lung EXHALATION Air sacs empty; Lungs Fill INHALATION Air sacs fill
Слайд 81: Control of Breathing in Humans
In humans, the main breathing control centers are in two regions of the brain, the medulla oblongata and the pons. The medulla regulates the rate and depth of breathing in response to pH changes - CO 2 levels in the cerebrospinal fluid. The medulla adjusts breathing rate and depth to match metabolic demands. The pons regulates the tempo.
Sensors in the aorta and carotid arteries monitor O 2 and CO 2 concentrations in the blood. These sensors exert secondary control over breathing.
Automatic control of breathing Breathing control centers Cerebrospinal fluid Pons Medulla oblongata Carotid arteries Aorta Diaphragm Rib muscles
Слайд 84: Adaptations for gas exchange include pigments that bind and transport gases
The metabolic demands of many organisms require that the blood transport large quantities of O 2 and CO 2 Blood arriving in the lungs has a low partial pressure of O 2 and a high partial pressure of CO 2 relative to air in the alveoli. In the alveoli, O 2 diffuses into the blood and CO 2 diffuses into the air. In tissue capillaries, partial pressure gradients favor diffusion of O 2 into the interstitial fluids and CO 2 into the blood.
Loading and unloading of respiratory gases Alveolus P O 2 = 100 mm Hg P O 2 = 40 P O 2 = 100 P O 2 = 100 P O 2 = 40 Circulatory system Body tissue P O 2 ≤ 40 mm Hg P CO 2 ≥ 46 mm Hg Body tissue P CO 2 = 46 P CO 2 = 40 P CO 2 = 40 P CO 2 = 46 Circulatory system P CO 2 = 40 mm Hg Alveolus (b) Carbon dioxide (a ) Oxygen
Слайд 86: Respiratory Pigments
Respiratory pigments = proteins that transport oxygen, greatly increase the amount of oxygen that blood can carry. Arthropods and many molluscs have hemocyanin with copper as the oxygen-binding component. Most vertebrates and some invertebrates use hemoglobin with iron = oxygen-binding component contained within erythrocytes.
Слайд 87: Hemoglobin
A single hemoglobin molecule can carry four molecules of O 2 The hemoglobin dissociation curve shows that a small change in the partial pressure of oxygen can result in a large change in delivery of O 2 CO 2 produced during cellular respiration lowers blood pH and decreases the affinity of hemoglobin for O 2 This is called the Bohr shift.
Chains Iron Heme Chains Hemoglobin
Dissociation curves for hemoglobin at 37ºC O 2 unloaded to tissues at rest O 2 unloaded to tissues during exercise 100 40 0 20 60 80 0 40 80 100 O 2 saturation of hemoglobin (%) 20 60 Tissues during exercise Tissues at rest Lungs P O 2 (mm Hg) (a) P O 2 and hemoglobin dissociation at pH 7.4 O 2 saturation of hemoglobin (%) 40 0 20 60 80 0 40 80 100 20 60 100 P O 2 (mm Hg) (b) pH and hemoglobin dissociation pH 7.4 pH 7.2 Hemoglobin retains less O 2 at lower pH (higher CO 2 concentration)
Слайд 90: Carbon Dioxide Transport
Hemoglobin also helps transport CO 2 and assists in buffering. CO 2 from respiring cells diffuses into the blood and is transported either in blood plasma, bound to hemoglobin, or as bicarbonate ions = HCO 3 –.
Carbon dioxide transport in the blood Body tissue CO 2 produced CO 2 transport from tissues Capillary wall Interstitial fluid Plasma within capillary CO 2 CO 2 CO 2 Red blood cell H 2 O H 2 CO 3 Hb Carbonic acid Hemoglobin picks up CO 2 and H + CO 2 transport to lungs HCO 3 – Bicarbonate H + + Hemoglobin releases CO 2 and H + To lungs HCO 3 – HCO 3 – Hb H + + HCO 3 – H 2 CO 3 H 2 O CO 2 CO 2 CO 2 CO 2 Alveolar space in lung
Слайд 92: Elite Animal Athletes
Migratory and diving mammals have evolutionary adaptations that allow them to perform extraordinary feats. The extreme O 2 consumption of the antelope-like pronghorn underlies its ability to run at high speed over long distances. Deep-diving air breathers stockpile O 2 and deplete it slowly. Weddell seals have a high blood to body volume ratio and can store oxygen in their muscles in myoglobin proteins.
Review Inhaled air Exhaled air Alveolar epithelial cells Lungs - Alveolar Air Spaces GAS EXCHANGE CO 2 O 2 CO 2 O 2 Alveolar capillaries of lung Pulmonary veins Pulmonary arteries Systemic veins Systemic arteries Heart Systemic capillaries CO 2 O 2 CO 2 O 2 Body tissue - GAS EXCHANGE
Слайд 94: You should now be able to:
Compare and contrast open and closed circulatory systems. Compare and contrast the circulatory systems of fish, amphibians, reptiles, and mammals or birds. Distinguish between pulmonary and systemic circuits and explain the function of each. Trace the path of a red blood cell through the human heart, pulmonary circuit, and systemic circuit.
Define cardiac cycle and explain the role of the sinoatrial node. Relate the structures of capillaries, arteries, and veins to their function. Define blood pressure and cardiac output and describe two factors that influence each. Explain how osmotic pressure and hydrostatic pressure regulate the exchange of fluid and solutes across the capillary walls.
Describe the role played by the lymphatic system in relation to the circulatory system. Describe the function of erythrocytes, leukocytes, platelets, fibrin. Distinguish between a heart attack and stroke. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of water and of air as respiratory media.