Презентация на тему: Chapter 40

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Chapter 40
Overview: Diverse Forms, Common Challenges
Chapter 40
Animal form and function are correlated at all levels of organization
Physical Constraints on Animal Size and Shape
Chapter 40
Exchange with the Environment
Chapter 40
Chapter 40
Chapter 40
Chapter 40
Chapter 40
Tissue Structure and Function
Epithelial Tissue - Covering & Lining
Chapter 40
Connective Tissue
Chapter 40
Chapter 40
Chapter 40
Chapter 40
Muscle Tissue
Chapter 40
Nervous Tissue
Chapter 40
Chapter 40
Coordination and Control
Chapter 40
Chapter 40
Chapter 40
Feedback control loops maintain the internal environment in many animals
Chapter 40
Homeostasis
Mechanisms of Homeostasis
Chapter 40
Feedback Loops in Homeostasis
Alterations in Homeostasis
Homeostatic processes for thermoregulation involve form, function, and behavior
Chapter 40
Chapter 40
Variation in Body Temperature
Chapter 40
Chapter 40
Chapter 40
Insulation
Circulatory Adaptations
Chapter 40
Chapter 40
Cooling by Evaporative Heat Loss
Behavioral Responses
Adjusting Metabolic Heat Production
Chapter 40
Acclimatization in Thermoregulation
Chapter 40
Energy requirements are related to animal size, activity, and environment
Energy Allocation and Use
Chapter 40
Quantifying Energy Use
Minimum Metabolic Rate and Thermoregulation
Influences on Metabolic Rate
Chapter 40
Activity, Metabolic Rate, and Energy Budgets
Chapter 40
Torpor and Energy Conservation
Chapter 40
Chapter 40
Chapter 40
You should now be able to:
Chapter 40
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Первый слайд презентации: Chapter 40

Basic Principles of Animal Form and Function

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Слайд 2: Overview: Diverse Forms, Common Challenges

Anatomy is the study of the biological form of an organism. Physiology is the study of the biological functions an organism performs. The comparative study of animals reveals that form and function are closely correlated. Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

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Слайд 3

How does a jackrabbit keep from overheating?

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Слайд 4: Animal form and function are correlated at all levels of organization

Size and shape affect the way an animal interacts with its environment. Many different animal body plans have evolved and are determined by the genome. Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

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Слайд 5: Physical Constraints on Animal Size and Shape

The ability to perform certain actions depends on an animal’s shape, size, and environment. Evolutionary convergence reflects different species’ adaptations to a similar environmental challenge. Physical laws impose constraints on animal size and shape. Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

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Слайд 6

Convergent evolution in fast swimmers (a) Tuna (b) Penguin (c) Seal

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Слайд 7: Exchange with the Environment

An animal’s size and shape directly affect how it exchanges energy and materials with its surroundings. Exchange occurs as substances dissolved in the aqueous medium diffuse and are transported across the cells’ plasma membranes. A single-celled protist living in water has a sufficient surface area of plasma membrane to service its entire volume of cytoplasm. Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

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Слайд 8

Contact with the environment Exchange 0.15 mm (a) Single cell 1.5 mm (b) Two layers of cells Exchange Exchange Mouth Gastrovascular cavity

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Слайд 9

Multicellular organisms with a sac body plan have body walls that are only two cells thick, facilitating diffusion of materials. More complex organisms have highly folded internal surfaces for exchanging materials. Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

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Слайд 10

Internal exchange surfaces of complex animals 0.5 cm Nutrients Digestive system Lining of small intestine Mouth Food External environment Animal body CO 2 O 2 Circulatory system Heart Respiratory system Cells Interstitial fluid Excretory system Anus Unabsorbed matter (feces) Metabolic waste products (nitrogenous waste) Kidney tubules 10 µm 50 µm Lung tissue Blood

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Слайд 11

In vertebrates, the space between cells is filled with interstitial fluid, which allows for the movement of material into and out of cells. A complex body plan helps an animal in a variable environment to maintain a relatively stable internal environment. Most animals are composed of specialized cells organized into tissues that have different functions. Tissues make up organs, which together make up organ systems. Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Hierarchical Organization of Body Plans

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Слайд 12

Organ Systems

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Слайд 13: Tissue Structure and Function

Different tissues have different structures that are suited to their functions. Tissues are classified into four main categories: epithelial, connective, muscle, and nervous. Tissue Structure and Function Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

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Слайд 14: Epithelial Tissue - Covering & Lining

Epithelial tissue covers the outside of the body and lines the organs and cavities within the body. It contains cells that are closely joined. The shape of epithelial cells may be cuboidal (like dice), columnar (like bricks on end), or squamous (like floor tiles). Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

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Слайд 15

Structure and function in animal tissues Epithelial Tissue Cuboidal epithelium Simple columnar epithelium Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium Stratified squamous epithelium Simple squamous epithelium

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Слайд 16: Connective Tissue

Connective tissue mainly binds and supports other tissues. It contains sparsely packed cells scattered throughout an extracellular matrix. The matrix consists of fibers in a liquid, jellylike, or solid foundation. Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

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Слайд 17

There are three types of connective tissue fiber, all made of protein: Collagenous fibers provide strength and flexibility. Elastic fibers stretch and snap back to their original length. Reticular fibers join connective tissue to adjacent tissues. Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

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Слайд 18

In vertebrates, the fibers and foundation combine to form six major types of connective tissue : Loose connective tissue binds epithelia to underlying tissues and holds organs in place. Cartilage is a strong and flexible support material. Fibrous connective tissue is found in tendons, which attach muscles to bones, and ligaments, which connect bones at joints. Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Connective Tissue

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Слайд 19

Adipose tissue stores fat for insulation and fuel. Blood is composed of blood cells and cell fragments in blood plasma. Bone is mineralized and forms the skeleton. Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Connective Tissue

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Слайд 20

Connective Tissue Collagenous fiber Loose connective tissue Elastic fiber 120 µm Cartilage Chondrocytes 100 µm Chondroitin sulfate Adipose tissue Fat droplets 150 µm White blood cells 55 µm Plasma Red blood cells Blood Nuclei Fibrous connective tissue 30 µm Osteon Bone Central canal 700 µm

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Слайд 21: Muscle Tissue

Muscle tissue consists of long cells called muscle fibers, which contract in response to nerve signals. It is divided in the vertebrate body into three types: Skeletal muscle, or striated muscle, is attached to bones and is responsible for voluntary movement. Smooth muscle mainly lines internal organs and is responsible for involuntary body activities. Cardiac muscle is responsible for contraction of the heart. Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

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Слайд 22

Muscle Tissue 50 µm Skeletal muscle Multiple nuclei Muscle fiber Sarcomere 100 µm Smooth muscle Cardiac muscle Nucleus Muscle fibers 25 µm Nucleus Intercalated disk

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Слайд 23: Nervous Tissue

Nervous tissue senses stimuli and transmits signals throughout the animal. Nervous tissue contains: Neurons, or nerve cells, that transmit nerve impulses. Glial cells, or glia, that help nourish, insulate, and replenish neurons. Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

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Слайд 24

Glial cells Nervous Tissue 15 µm Dendrites Cell body Axon Neuron Axons Blood vessel 40 µm

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Слайд 25

Dendrites Cell body Axon 40 µm Neuron

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Слайд 26: Coordination and Control

Control and coordination within a body depend on the endocrine system and the nervous system. The endocrine system transmits chemical signals called hormones to receptive cells throughout the body via blood. A hormone may affect one or more regions throughout the body. Hormones are relatively slow acting, but can have long-lasting effects. Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

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Слайд 27

Signaling Stimulus Hormone Endocrine cell Signal travels everywhere via the bloodstream. Blood vessel Response (a) Signaling by hormones Stimulus Neuron Axon Signal Signal travels along axon to a specific location. Signal Axons Response (b) Signaling by neurons

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Слайд 28

The nervous system transmits information between specific locations. The information conveyed depends on a signal’s pathway, not the type of signal. Nerve signal transmission is very fast. Nerve impulses can be received by neurons, muscle cells, and endocrine cells. Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

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Слайд 29

Stimulus Neuron Axon Signal Signal travels along axon to a specific location. Signal Axons Response Signaling by neurons

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Слайд 30: Feedback control loops maintain the internal environment in many animals

Animals manage their internal environment by regulating or conforming to the external environment. A regulator uses internal control mechanisms to moderate internal change in the face of external, environmental fluctuation. A conformer allows its internal condition to vary with certain external changes. Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

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Слайд 31

River otter ( temperature regulator ) Largemouth bass ( temperature conformer ) Body temperature (°C) 0 10 10 20 20 30 30 40 40 Ambient (environmental) temperature (ºC)

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Слайд 32: Homeostasis

Organisms use homeostasis to maintain a “steady state” or internal balance regardless of external environment. In humans, body temperature, blood pH, and glucose concentration are each maintained at a constant level. Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

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Слайд 33: Mechanisms of Homeostasis

Mechanisms of homeostasis moderate changes in the internal environment. For a given variable, fluctuations above or below a set point serve as a stimulus ; these are detected by a sensor and trigger a response. The response returns the variable to the set point. Negative Feedback acts to reverse a trend … To maintain the variable within a narrow range. Mechanisms of Homeostasis Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

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Слайд 34

negative feedback Response: Heater turned off Stimulus: Control center (thermostat) reads too hot Room temperature decreases Set point: 20ºC Room temperature increases Stimulus: Control center (thermostat) reads too cold Response: Heater turned on

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Слайд 35: Feedback Loops in Homeostasis

The dynamic equilibrium of homeostasis is maintained by negative feedback, which helps to return a variable to either a normal range or a set point. Most homeostatic control systems function by negative feedback, where buildup of the end product shuts the system off. Positive feedback loops occur in animals, but do not usually contribute to homeostasis. Instead, positive feedback escalates a trend. Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

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Слайд 36: Alterations in Homeostasis

Set points and normal ranges can change with age or show cyclic variation. Homeostasis can adjust to changes in external environment, a process called acclimatization. Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

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Слайд 37: Homeostatic processes for thermoregulation involve form, function, and behavior

Thermoregulation is the process by which animals maintain an internal temperature within a tolerable range. Endothermic animals generate heat by metabolism ; birds and mammals are endotherms Ectothermic animals gain heat from external sources ; ectotherms include most invertebrates, fishes, amphibians, and non-avian reptiles Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

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Слайд 38

In general, ectotherms tolerate greater variation in internal temperature, while endotherms are active at a greater range of external temperatures. Endothermy is more energetically expensive than ectothermy. Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

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Слайд 39

(a) A walrus, an endotherm (b) A lizard, an ectotherm

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Слайд 40: Variation in Body Temperature

The body temperature of a poikilotherm varies with its environment, while that of a homeotherm is relatively constant. Balancing Heat Loss and Gain: Organisms exchange heat by four physical processes: conduction, convection, radiation, and evaporation. Heat regulation in mammals often involves the integumentary system : skin, hair, and nails. Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

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Слайд 41

Heat exchange between an organism and its environment Radiation Evaporation Convection Conduction

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Слайд 42

Mammalian integumentary system Epidermis Dermis Hypodermis Adipose tissue Blood vessels Hair Sweat pore Muscle Nerve Sweat gland Oil gland Hair follicle

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Слайд 43

Five general adaptations help animals thermoregulate : Insulation Circulatory adaptations Cooling by evaporative heat loss Behavioral responses Adjusting metabolic heat production. Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

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Слайд 44: Insulation

Insulation is a major thermoregulatory adaptation in mammals and birds. Skin, feathers, fur, and blubber reduce heat flow between an animal and its environment. Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

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Слайд 45: Circulatory Adaptations

Regulation of blood flow near the body surface significantly affects thermoregulation. Many endotherms and some ectotherms can alter the amount of blood flowing between the body core and the skin. In vasodilation, blood flow in the skin increases, facilitating heat loss. In vasoconstriction, blood flow in the skin decreases, lowering heat loss. Circulatory Adaptations Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

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Слайд 46

The arrangement of blood vessels in many marine mammals and birds allows for countercurrent exchange. Countercurrent heat exchangers transfer heat between fluids flowing in opposite directions. Countercurrent heat exchangers are an important mechanism for reducing heat loss. Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

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Слайд 47

Countercurrent heat exchangers Canada goose Bottlenose dolphin Artery Artery Vein Vein Blood flow 33º 35ºC 27º 30º 18º 20º 10º 9º

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Слайд 48: Cooling by Evaporative Heat Loss

Many types of animals lose heat through evaporation of water in sweat = evaporative cooling. Panting increases the cooling effect in birds and many mammals. Sweating or bathing moistens the skin, helping to cool an animal down. Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

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Слайд 49: Behavioral Responses

Both endotherms and ectotherms use behavioral responses to control body temperature. Some terrestrial invertebrates have postures that minimize or maximize absorption of solar heat. Behavioral Responses Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

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Слайд 50: Adjusting Metabolic Heat Production

Some animals can regulate body temperature by adjusting their rate of metabolic heat production. Heat production is increased by muscle activity such as moving or shivering. Some ectotherms can also shiver to increase body temperature. Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

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Слайд 51

RESULTS Contractions per minute O 2 consumption (mL O 2 /hr) per kg 0 0 20 20 15 10 5 25 30 35 40 60 80 100 120 A Burmese python generates heat while incubating eggs.

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Слайд 52: Acclimatization in Thermoregulation

Birds and mammals can vary their insulation to acclimatize to seasonal temperature changes. When temperatures are subzero, some ectotherms produce “antifreeze” compounds to prevent ice formation in their cells. Thermoregulation is controlled by a region of the brain called the hypothalamus. The hypothalamus triggers heat loss or heat generating mechanisms. Fever is the result of a change to the set point for a biological thermostat. Acclimatization in Thermoregulation Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

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Слайд 53

Hypothalamus: thermoregulation Sweat glands secrete sweat, which evaporates, cooling the body. Thermostat in hypothalamus activates cooling mechanisms. Blood vessels in skin dilate: capillaries fill; heat radiates from skin. Increased body temperature Decreased body temperature Thermostat in hypothalamus activates warming mechanisms. Blood vessels in skin constrict, reducing heat loss. Skeletal muscles contract; shivering generates heat. Body temperature increases; thermostat shuts off warming mechanisms. Homeostasis: Internal temperature of 36–38 ° C Body temperature decreases; thermostat shuts off cooling mechanisms.

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Слайд 54: Energy requirements are related to animal size, activity, and environment

Bioenergetic s is the overall flow and transformation of energy in an animal. It determines how much food an animal needs and relates to an animal’s size, activity, and environment. Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

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Слайд 55: Energy Allocation and Use

Animals harvest chemical energy from food. Energy-containing molecules from food are usually used to make ATP, which powers cellular work. After the needs of staying alive are met, remaining food molecules can be used in biosynthesis. Biosynthesis includes body growth and repair, synthesis of storage material such as fat, and production of gametes. Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

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Слайд 56

Bioenergetics of an animal Organic molecules in food External environment Animal body Digestion and absorption Nutrient molecules in body cells Carbon skeletons Cellular respiration ATP Heat Energy lost in feces Energy lost in nitrogenous waste Heat Biosynthesis Heat Heat Cellular work

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Слайд 57: Quantifying Energy Use

Metabolic rate is the amount of energy an animal uses in a unit of time. One way to measure it is to determine the amount of oxygen consumed or carbon dioxide produced. Quantifying Energy Use Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

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Слайд 58: Minimum Metabolic Rate and Thermoregulation

Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is the metabolic rate of an endotherm at rest at a “comfortable” temperature. Standard metabolic rate (SMR) is the metabolic rate of an ectotherm at rest at a specific temperature. Both rates assume a nongrowing, fasting, and nonstressed animal. Ectotherms have much lower metabolic rates than endotherms of a comparable size. Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

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Слайд 59: Influences on Metabolic Rate

Metabolic rates are affected by many factors besides whether an animal is an endotherm or ectotherm. Two of these factors are size and activity. Metabolic rate is inversely related to body size among similar animals. The higher metabolic rate of smaller animals leads to a higher oxygen delivery rate, breathing rate, heart rate, and greater (relative) blood volume, compared with a larger animal. Influences on Metabolic Rate Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

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Слайд 60

Relationship of Metabolic Rate to Body Size Elephant Horse Human Sheep Dog Cat Rat Ground squirrel Mouse Harvest mouse Shrew Body mass (kg) (log scale) BMR (L O 2 /hr) (Iog scale) 10 –3 10 –2 10 –2 10 –1 10 –1 10 10 1 1 10 2 10 2 10 3 10 3 (a) Relationship of BMR to body size Shrew Mouse Harvest mouse Sheep Rat Cat Dog Human Horse Elephant BMR (L O 2 /hr) (per kg) Ground squirrel Body mass (kg) (log scale) 10 –3 10 –2 10 –1 1 10 10 2 10 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 7 (b ) Relationship of BMR per kilogram of body mass to body size

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Слайд 61: Activity, Metabolic Rate, and Energy Budgets

Activity greatly affects metabolic rate for endotherms and ectotherms. In general, the maximum metabolic rate an animal can sustain is inversely related to the duration of the activity. Different species use energy and materials in food in different ways, depending on their environment. Use of energy is partitioned to BMR (or SMR), activity, thermoregulation, growth, and reproduction. Activity, Metabolic Rate, and Energy Budgets Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

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Слайд 62

Energy budgets for four animals Annual energy expenditure (kcal/hr) 60-kg female human from temperate climate 800,000 Basal (standard) metabolism Reproduction Thermoregulation Growth Activity 340,000 4-kg male Adélie penguin from Antarctica (brooding) 4,000 0.025-kg female deer mouse from temperate North America 8,000 4-kg female eastern indigo snake Endotherms Ectotherm

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Слайд 63: Torpor and Energy Conservation

Torpor is a physiological state in which activity is low and metabolism decreases. Torpor enables animals to save energy while avoiding difficult and dangerous conditions. Hibernation is long-term torpor that is an adaptation to winter cold and food scarcity. Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

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Слайд 64

Body temperature and metabolism during hibernation in ground squirrels Additional metabolism that would be necessary to stay active in winter Actual metabolism Arousals Body temperature Outside temperature Burrow temperature Metabolic rate (kcal per day) Temperature (°C) June August October December February April –15 –10 –5 0 5 15 10 25 20 35 30 0 100 200

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Слайд 65

Estivation, or summer torpor, enables animals to survive long periods of high temperatures and scarce water supplies. Daily torpor is exhibited by many small mammals and birds and seems adapted to feeding patterns. Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

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Слайд 66

Review Homeostasis Stimulus: Perturbation/stress Response/effector Control center Sensor/receptor

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Слайд 67: You should now be able to:

Distinguish among the following sets of terms: collagenous, elastic, and reticular fibers; regulator and conformer; positive and negative feedback; basal and standard metabolic rates; torpor, hibernation, estivation, and daily torpor. Relate structure with function and identify diagrams of the following animal tissues: epithelial, connective tissue (six types), muscle tissue (three types), and nervous tissue. Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

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Последний слайд презентации: Chapter 40

Compare and contrast the nervous and endocrine systems. Define thermoregulation and explain how endotherms and ectotherms manage their heat budgets. Describe how a countercurrent heat exchanger may function to retain heat within an animal body. Define bioenergetics and biosynthesis. Define metabolic rate and explain how it can be determined for animals. Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

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