Слайд 2: Overview: The Smallest Unit of Evolution
Natural selection acts on individuals, but only populations evolve. Genetic variations in populations contribute to evolution. Microevolution is a change in allele frequencies in a population over generations. Two processes, mutation and sexual reproduction, produce the variation in gene pools that contributes to differences among individuals.
Population geneticists measure polymorphisms in a population by determining the amount of heterozygosity at the gene and molecular levels. Average heterozygosity measures the average percent of loci that are heterozygous in a population. Most species exhibit geographic variation, differences between gene pools of separate populations or population subgroups. Some examples of geographic variation occur as a cline, which is a graded change in a trait along a geographic axis.
Cline 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 46 44 42 40 38 36 34 32 30 Georgia Warm (21°C) Latitude (°N) Maine Cold (6°C) Ldh-B b allele frequency
Слайд 6: Mutation
Mutations are changes in the nucleotide sequence of DNA. Mutations cause new genes and alleles to arise. Only mutations in cells that produce gametes can be passed to offspring. A point mutation is a change in one base in a gene.
The effects of point mutations can vary: Mutations in noncoding regions of DNA are often harmless. Mutations in a gene might not affect protein production because of redundancy in the genetic code. Mutations that result in a change in protein production are often harmful. Mutations that result in a change in protein production can sometimes increase the fitness of the organism in its environment.
Слайд 8: Mutations That Alter Gene / Chromosome Number or Sequence
Chromosomal mutations that delete, disrupt, or rearrange many loci are typically harmful. Mutation rates are low in animals and plants. Mutations rates are often lower in prokaryotes and higher in viruses.
Слайд 9: Sexual Reproduction
Sexual reproduction can shuffle existing alleles into new combinations. In organisms that reproduce sexually, recombination of alleles is more important than mutation in producing the genetic differences that make adaptation possible.
Слайд 10: Hardy-Weinberg equation tests whether a sexually reproducing population is evolving
A population is a localized group of individuals ( a species in an area ) capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring. A gene pool consists of all the alleles for all loci in a population. A locus is fixed if all individuals in a population are homozygous for the same allele.
The frequency of an allele in a population can be calculated. If there are 2 alleles at a locus, p and q are used to represent their frequencies. The frequency of all alleles in a population will add up to 1: p + q = 1 Hardy-Weinberg equations
Слайд 12: The Hardy-Weinberg Principle: a Population
The Hardy-Weinberg principle describes an ideal population that is not evolving. The closer a population is to the criteria of the Hardy-Weinberg principle, the more stable the population is likely to be. Calculating Genotype Frequencies p 2 + 2pq + q 2 = 1 where p 2 and q 2 represent the frequencies of the homozygous genotypes and 2 pq represents the frequency of the heterozygous genotype.
The five conditions for nonevolving populations are rarely met in nature: No mutations Random mating No natural selection Extremely large population No gene flow Hardy-Weinberg Ideal Conditions
Слайд 14: Applying the Hardy-Weinberg Principle
We can assume the locus that causes phenylketonuria (PKU) is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium given that: The PKU gene mutation rate is low Mate selection is random with respect to whether or not an individual is a carrier for the PKU allele Natural selection can only act on rare homozygous individuals who do not follow dietary restrictions The population is large Migration has no effect as many other populations have similar allele frequencies
The occurrence of PKU is 1 per 10,000 births q 2 = 0.0001 q = 0.01 The frequency of normal alleles is p = 1 – q = 1 – 0.01 = 0.99 The frequency of heterozygotes / carriers is 2 pq = 2 x 0.99 x 0.01 = 0.0198 or approximately 2% of the U.S. population.
Слайд 16: Concept 23.3: Natural selection, genetic drift, and gene flow can alter allele frequencies in a population
Three major factors alter allele frequencies and bring about most evolutionary change: Natural selection - non random Genetic drift - random Gene flow - random Concept 23.3: Natural selection, genetic drift, and gene flow can alter allele frequencies in a population
Слайд 17: Natural Selection and Genetic Drift
Natural Selection : Differential success in reproduction results in certain alleles being passed to the next generation in greater proportions by the more fit individuals. Genetic drift : describes how allele frequencies fluctuate randomly from one generation to the next. The smaller a sample, the greater the chance of deviation from a predicted result. Genetic drift tends to reduce genetic variation through losses of alleles.
Genetic Drift Generation 1 C W C W C R C R C R C W C R C R C R C R C R C R C R C R C R C W C R C W C R C W p (frequency of C R ) = 0.7 q (frequency of C W ) = 0.3 Generation 2 C R C W C R C W C R C W C R C W C W C W C W C W C W C W C R C R C R C R C R C R p = 0.5 q = 0.5 Generation 3 p = 1.0 q = 0.0 C R C R C R C R C R C R C R C R C R C R C R C R C R C R C R C R C R C R C R C R
Слайд 19: Genetic Drift: The Founder Effect
The founder effect occurs when a few individuals become isolated from a larger population. Allele frequencies in the small founder population can be different from those in the larger parent population.
Слайд 20: Genetic Drift: The Bottleneck Effect
The bottleneck effect is a sudden reduction in population size due to a change in the environment, such as a natural disaster. The resulting gene pool may no longer be reflective of the original population’s gene pool. If the population remains small, it may be further affected by genetic drift.
Genetic Drift: The BottleNeck Effect Original population Bottlenecking event Surviving population
Слайд 22: Effects of Genetic Drift : A Summary
Genetic drift is significant in small populations. Genetic drift causes allele frequencies to change at random. Genetic drift can lead to a loss of genetic variation within populations. Genetic drift can cause harmful alleles to become fixed.
Слайд 23: Gene Flow: Immigration & Emmigration
Gene flow consists of the movement of alleles among populations. Alleles can be transferred through the movement of fertile individuals or gametes (for example, pollen). Gene flow tends to reduce differences between populations over time. Gene flow is more likely than mutation to alter allele frequencies directly.
Слайд 25: Concept 23.4: Natural selection is the only mechanism that consistently causes adaptive evolution
Only natural selection consistently results in adaptive evolution. Natural selection brings about adaptive evolution by acting on an organism’s phenotype. Concept 23.4: Natural selection is the only mechanism that consistently causes adaptive evolution
Слайд 26: Natural Selection: Relative Fitness
The natural selection phrases “struggle for existence” and “ survival of the fittest ” are misleading as they imply direct competition among individuals. Reproductive success is generally more subtle and depends on many factors. Relative fitness is the contribution an individual makes to the gene pool of the next generation, relative to the contributions of other individuals. Selection favors certain genotypes by acting on the phenotypes of certain organisms.
Слайд 27: Directional, Disruptive, and Stabilizing Selection
Three modes of natural selection: Directional selection favors individuals at one end of the phenotypic range. Disruptive selection favors individuals at both extremes of the phenotypic range. Stabilizing selection favors intermediate variants and acts against extreme phenotypes.
Natural Selection Original population (c ) Stabilizing selection (b) Disruptive selection (a ) Directional selection Phenotypes (fur color) Frequency of individuals Original population Evolved population
Слайд 29: The Key Role of Natural Selection in Adaptive Evolution
Natural selection increases the frequencies of alleles that enhance survival and reproduction. Adaptive evolution = the match between an organism and its environment.
Natural Selection - Adaptive Evolution (a) Color-changing ability in cuttlefish (b) Movable jaw bones in snakes Movable bones
Because environments change, adaptive evolution is a continuous process. Genetic drift and gene flow are random and so do not consistently lead to adaptive evolution as they can increase or decrease the match between an organism and its environment.
Слайд 32: Sexual Selection
Sexual selection is natural selection for mating success. It can result in sexual dimorphism, marked differences between the sexes in secondary sexual characteristics. Male showiness due to mate choice can increase a male’s chances of attracting a female, while decreasing his chances of survival.
How do female preferences evolve? The good genes hypothesis suggests that if a trait is related to male health, both the male trait and female preference for that trait should be selected for.
Слайд 35: The Preservation of Genetic Variation
Various mechanisms help to preserve genetic variation in a population: Diploidy maintains genetic variation in the form of hidden recessive alleles. Heterozygote advantage occurs when heterozygotes have a higher fitness than do both homozygotes. Natural selection will tend to maintain two or more alleles at that locus. The sickle-cell allele causes mutations in hemoglobin but also confers malaria resistance.
Heterozygote Advantage 0–2.5% Distribution of malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum (a parasitic unicellular eukaryote) Frequencies of the sickle-cell allele 2.5–5.0% 7.5–10.0% 5.0–7.5% >12.5% 10.0–12.5%
In frequency-dependent selection, the fitness of a phenotype declines if it becomes too common in the population. Selection favors whichever phenotype is less common in a population. Frequency-Dependent Selection
Frequency Dependent Selection “Right-mouthed” 1981 “Left-mouthed” Frequency of “left-mouthed” individuals Sample year 1.0 0.5 0 ’82 ’83 ’84 ’85 ’86 ’87 ’88 ’89 ’90
Слайд 39: Neutral Variation
Neutral variation is genetic variation that appears to confer no selective advantage or disadvantage. For example, Variation in noncoding regions of DNA Variation in proteins that have little effect on protein function or reproductive fitness.
Слайд 40: Why Natural Selection Cannot Fashion Perfect Organisms
Selection can act only on existing variations. Evolution is limited by historical constraints. Adaptations are often compromises. Chance, natural selection, and the environment interact.
Слайд 41: You should now be able to:
Explain why the majority of point mutations are harmless. Explain how sexual recombination generates genetic variability. Define the terms population, species, gene pool, relative fitness, and neutral variation. List the five conditions of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium.
Apply the Hardy-Weinberg equation to a population genetics problem. Explain why natural selection is the only mechanism that consistently produces adaptive change. Explain the role of population size in genetic drift.