Презентация на тему: Chapter 14 Neurodevelopmental Disorders

Chapter 14 Neurodevelopmental Disorders Outline Focus Questions Neurodevelopmental Disorders Nature of Developmental Psychopathology: An Overview Chapter 14 Neurodevelopmental Disorders Chapter 14 Neurodevelopmental Disorders Chapter 14 Neurodevelopmental Disorders Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Types of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Subtypes(ADHD) ADHD: Facts and Statistics Test ADHD ADHD: Facts and Statistics, Continued Causes of ADHD: Biological Contributions Causes of ADHD: Psychosocial Contributions Treatment of ADHD Надо какое ниб упражнение Specific Learning Disorders: An Overview Specific Learning Disorder: Types Specific Learning Disorder: Statistics Specific Learning Disorders: Statistics, Continued Causes of Specific Learning Disorder Neurological Differences in Dyslexia Treatment of Specific Learning Disorder Autism Spectrum Disorder Autism Spectrum Disorder Rett Syndrom Impairment in Social Communication and Interaction What Autism Looks Like Restricted or Repetitive Behaviors and Interests Autism Spectrum Disorder: Prevalence Psychological and Social Dimensions Biological Dimensions Neurobiological Influences Vaccination Risks Scientists discover how a gene mutation causes autism Treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorder Treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorder, Continued Treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorder, Part 3 Intellectual Disability (Intellectual Development Disorder) Intellectual Disability Levels of Intellectual Disability Intellectual Disability, DSM-5 Other Classification Systems for Intellectual Disability Intellectual Disability: Statistics Causes of Intellectual Disability Examples of Causes of Intellectual Disability Causes of Intellectual Disability: Genetics Lesch-Nyham syndrome Phenylketonuria (PKU) Causes of Intellectual Disability: Down Syndrome Causes of Intellectual Disability: Down Syndome, Continued Causes of Intellectual Disability: Fragile X Syndrome Causes of Intellectual Disability: Cultural-Familial Intellectual Disability Treatment of Intellectual Disability Treatment of Intellectual Disability: Goals Prevention of Neurodevelopmental Disorders Summary of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
1/58
Средняя оценка: 4.4/5 (всего оценок: 57)
Скачать (5204 Кб)
Код скопирован в буфер обмена
1

Первый слайд презентации: Chapter 14 Neurodevelopmental Disorders

2

Слайд 2: Outline

Overview of Neurodevelopmental Disorders Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Specific Learning Disorder Autism Spectrum Disorder Intellectual Disability (Intellectual Development Disorder) Prevention of Neurodevelopmental Disorders

3

Слайд 3: Focus Questions

What are the defining features of ADHD? What is a specific learning disorder? What are the major features of autism spectrum disorders? How is intellectual disability defined?

4

Слайд 4: Neurodevelopmental Disorders

Diagnosed first in infancy, childhood, or adolescence Include the following: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Specific learning disorder Autism spectrum disorder Intellectual Disability Communication and Motor Disorders

5

Слайд 5: Nature of Developmental Psychopathology: An Overview

Normal vs. abnormal development Consider age and environment of child Developmental psychopathology Study of how disorders arise and change with time Disruption of early skills can affect later development Caution: do not excessively pathologize childhood behavior that is part of normal development

6

Слайд 6

Stuttering Cluttering - rapid and/or irregular speech rate causative gene mutations linked to stuttering

7

Слайд 7

8

Слайд 8

9

Слайд 9: Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

Nature of ADHD Central features – inattention, overactivity, and impulsivity Associated with numerous impairments Behavioral Cognitive Social and academic problems

10

Слайд 10: Types of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Subtypes(ADHD)

Inattentive Hyperactive/impulsive Combined

11

Слайд 11: ADHD: Facts and Statistics

Prevalence Occurs in approximately 5% of school-aged children throughout the world ADHD most commonly diagnosed in the United States, although prevalence appears fairly constant worldwide One study: 11% of children aged 4 to 17 were labeled with ADHD in 2011-2012 In general population (including adults), 5 to 9% meet criteria

12

Слайд 12: Test ADHD

The 'Unofficial' ADHD Test for Adults https://youtu.be/iozAFIr3BEw till 12min 24 Test https://totallyadd.com/do-i-have-add/

13

Слайд 13: ADHD: Facts and Statistics, Continued

Course of ADHD Symptoms usually appear around age 3 to 4 Half of children with ADHD continue to have difficulties as adults Divorce, lower education, substance use Impulsivity decreases, but inattention remains Gender differences: Boys outnumber girls 3:1

14

Слайд 14: Causes of ADHD: Biological Contributions

Genetic contributions ADHD seems to run in families Partially explained by copy number variants – extra or missing copies of genes on chromosome The role of toxins Food additives (e.g., dyes, pesticides) may play very small role in hyperactive/impulsive behavior among children Maternal smoking increases risk Neurobiological correlates of ADHD Inactivity of the frontal cortex and basal ganglia Abnormal frontal lobe development, poor inhibitory control

15

Слайд 15: Causes of ADHD: Psychosocial Contributions

Psychosocial factors ADHD children are often viewed negatively by others > Frequent negative feedback from peers and adults Peer rejection and resulting social isolation Such factors foster low self-esteem

16

Слайд 16: Treatment of ADHD

Goal of biological treatments: reduce impulsivity and hyperactivity, improve attention Behavioral treatment for children Reinforcement programs increase appropriate behaviors, decrease inappropriate behaviors May also involve parent training

17

Слайд 17: Надо какое ниб упражнение

18

Слайд 18: Specific Learning Disorders: An Overview

Scope of learning disorders Academic problems in reading, mathematics, and/or writing Performance substantially below expected levels based on age and/or demonstrated capacity Problems persist for 6+ months despite targeted intervention

19

Слайд 19: Specific Learning Disorder: Types

With impairment in reading, may include: Word reading accuracy Reading rate or fluency Reading comprehension With impairment in written expression, may include: Spelling accuracy Grammar punctuation and accuracy Clarity/organization of written expression With impairment in mathematics, may include: Number sense Memorization of arithmetic facts Accurate or fluent calculation Accurate math reasoning

20

Слайд 20: Specific Learning Disorder: Statistics

Prevalence of learning disorders 5 to 15% prevalence across youth of various age and cultures Highest rate of diagnosis in wealthier regions, but children with low SES more likely to have difficulties Reading difficulties most common, affect 7% of the general population

21

Слайд 21: Specific Learning Disorders: Statistics, Continued

Students with learning disorders are more likely to: Drop out of school Be unemployed Have suicidal thoughts Have negative school experiences May be related to communication disorders

22

Слайд 22: Causes of Specific Learning Disorder

Genetic and neurobiological contributions Learning disorders run in families, but specific difficulties are not inherited Evidence for subtle neurological difficulties is mounting (e.g., decreased functioning of areas responsible for word recognition) Overall, contributions are unclear Performance also influenced by: Motivational factors Socioeconomic status Cultural expectations Parental interactions Child management practices

23

Слайд 23: Neurological Differences in Dyslexia

24

Слайд 24: Treatment of Specific Learning Disorder

Requires intense educational interventions Remediation of basic processing problems, cognitive skills, and compensatory skills Examples: Vocabulary, discerning meaning, fact finding, decision making, critical thinking Data support behavioral educational interventions Biological interventions (e.g., Ritalin) usually used only for those individuals who also have ADHD

25

Слайд 25: Autism Spectrum Disorder

Problems occur in language, socialization, and cognition Pervasive – problems span many life areas 25% don’t acquire effective speech Restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities

26

Слайд 26: Autism Spectrum Disorder

Label is new to DSM-5 Encompasses several disorders previously classified as “pervasive developmental disorders” Including: Autistic disorder Asperger’s disorder Childhood disintegrative disorder Rett syndrome

27

Слайд 27: Rett Syndrom

28

Слайд 28: Impairment in Social Communication and Interaction

Defining characteristic: Failure to develop age-appropriate social relationships Trouble initiating and maintaining relationships Trouble with nonverbal communication May lack appropriate expressions, tone Trouble with social reciprocity Deficits in joint attention – the ability to communicate interest in an external stimulus and another person at the same time

29

Слайд 29: What Autism Looks Like

[INSERT Photo, p. 526 HERE]

30

Слайд 30: Restricted or Repetitive Behaviors and Interests

Preference for the status quo – maintenance of sameness Severe forms: Stereotyped or ritualistic behavior E.g., spinning, waving hands, rocking Less severe forms: Intense, circumscribed interest in very specific subjects Having restricted areas of interest may compound difficulties relating to others

31

Слайд 31: Autism Spectrum Disorder: Prevalence

Previously thought to be very rare, but this is not the case 1 in 50 school-aged children meet criteria More commonly diagnosed in males Gender ratio: 4 to 5:1 IQ interaction 38% show intellectual disabilities Occurs worldwide The better the language skills and IQ test performance, the better the prognosis

32

Слайд 32: Psychological and Social Dimensions

Historical views Failed parenting Perfectionistic, cold, and aloof Parents thought to have high socioeconomic status and higher IQs This view is not currently supportive

33

Слайд 33: Biological Dimensions

Significant genetic component Familial component: If you have one child with autism, the chance of having a second child with autism is 20% (100x greater risk than general population) Numerous genes on several chromosomes involved Older parents associated with increased risk

34

Слайд 34: Neurobiological Influences

Neurobiological influences Amygdala Larger size at birth = higher anxiety, fear Elevated cortisol Neuronal damage in the amygdala results from high stress, which may affect processing of social situations Oxytocin Lower levels in individuals with ASD giving oxytocin to people with ASD improved their ability to remember and process infor - mation with emotion content

35

Слайд 35: Vaccination Risks

Highly controversial theory is that mercury Vaccinations do NOT increase the risk of autism Mercury in some vaccinations was rumored to increase autism risk Large scale studies do NOT support this High rates of vaccinations do NOT increase risk for autism in the community at large Health risk of not vaccinating is substantial

36

Слайд 36: Scientists discover how a gene mutation causes autism

Children with autism 'have too many synapses in their brain' Mutations in a gene called UBE3A cause it to become hyperactive, leading to abnormal brain development and autism/ This hyperactivity causes autism While the parents of the children had no UBE3A mutations, the children did. The UBE3A gene in the children was permanently switched on. Children and adolescents with autism have too many synapses in their brain, which can affect their brain function Mutated UBE3A gene to mouse models the development of dendritic spines on the brain cells -too many dendritic spines has been associated with autism Children with autism 'have too many synapses in their brain In the brains of individuals without autism, the number of spines had reduced by almost 50% by late childhood. However, the number of spines in the brains of those with autism had only reduced by 16% by late childhood.

37

Слайд 37: Treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorder

Psychosocial treatments Behavioral approaches Skill building Reduce problem behaviors Communication and language training Increase socialization Naturalistic teaching strategies Early intervention is critical – may “normalize” the functioning of the developing brain

38

Слайд 38: Treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorder, Continued

Biological treatments Medical intervention has had little positive impact on core dysfunction Some drugs decrease agitation Tranquilizers SSRIs Indicators of good prognosis High IQ, good language ability

39

Слайд 39: Treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorder, Part 3

Integrated treatments Preferred model: Multidimensional, comprehensive focus Children offered special education at school focusing on communication Judicious use of medication in some cases Families given support too When older, focus on integrating into the community while maximizing independence

40

Слайд 40: Intellectual Disability (Intellectual Development Disorder)

Overview Below-average intellectual and adaptive functioning First evident in childhood Range of impairment varies greatly Previously called mental retardation

41

Слайд 41: Intellectual Disability

IQ typically below 70 to 75 Previously distinguished different levels of severity; IQ may be as low as under 20 Previously diagnosed on DSM-IV Axis II Reserved for conditions that 1) are chronic and pervasive and 2) are likely to influence the presentation of other mental disorders

42

Слайд 42: Levels of Intellectual Disability

Mild IQ = 50 or 55 to 70 Moderate IQ = 35-40 to 50-55 Severe IQs = 20-25 to 35-40 Profound IQ = below 20 to 25

43

Слайд 43: Intellectual Disability, DSM-5

DSM-5 identifies difficulties in three domains Conceptual (e.g., skill deficits in areas such as language, reasoning, knowledge, and memory) Social (e.g., problems with social judgment and the ability to make and retain friendships) Practical (e.g., difficulties managing personal care or job responsibilities) Devalued by society

44

Слайд 44: Other Classification Systems for Intellectual Disability

American Association of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (AAIDD) Based on assistance required Intermittent Limited Extensive Pervasive Keeps the emphasis on what assistance is needed

45

Слайд 45: Intellectual Disability: Statistics

Prevalence = 1 to 3% of general population 9 in 10 people with ID have mild impairment (IQ 50 to 70) Chronic course Highly variable individual prognosis Independence is possible for many individuals with mild impairment when provided with appropriate resources (e.g., skills training)

46

Слайд 46: Causes of Intellectual Disability

Hundreds of known causes Environmental (e.g., neglect) Prenatal (e.g., exposures to toxins in the womb) Perinatal (e.g., problems with delivery) Postnatal (e.g., head injury)

47

Слайд 47: Examples of Causes of Intellectual Disability

Examples Fetal alcohol syndrome Exposure to other illness in the womb Lack of oxygen (anoxia) during birth Malnutrition Head injuries Childhood abuse

48

Слайд 48: Causes of Intellectual Disability: Genetics

Genetic influences Chromosomal disorders (e.g., Down Syndrome) Multiple genetic mutations Single genes can be responsible Dominant genes less often responsible for ID (because people with ID are less likely to have children) Recessive genes more often responsible As many as 30% cases of ID have no identified etiology

49

Слайд 49: Lesch-Nyham syndrome

Genetic influences: De novo disorders ( = mutation occurring in the sperm or egg or after fertilization) Intellectual disability, symptoms of cerebral palsy, self-injurious behavior Recessive allele on the X chromosome > only affects males (females have an additional X chromosome to balance)

50

Слайд 50: Phenylketonuria (PKU)

Treatment at any time during pregnancy may reduce the severity of developmental delay. The most common inborn error of amino acid metabolism. Sources of phenylalanine are eggs, chicken, liver, beef, milk, and soybeans

51

Слайд 51: Causes of Intellectual Disability: Down Syndrome

Chromosomal influences Down Syndrome Most common chromosomal cause of intellectual disability Extra 21 st chromosome (Trisomy 21) Distinctive physical symptoms

52

Слайд 52: Causes of Intellectual Disability: Down Syndome, Continued

Down Syndrome Higher risk with advanced maternal age Detectable with some prenatal tests Amniocentesis Chorionic villus sampling (CVS) Mother’s blood tests Tests do not indicate severity of impairment 1 in 4 mothers elects to terminate the pregnancy

53

Слайд 53: Causes of Intellectual Disability: Fragile X Syndrome

Fragile X syndrome Symptoms Learning disabilities Hyperactivity Short attention span Gaze avoidance Perseverative speech Gender differences Primarily affects males Women with Fragile X have mild symptoms

54

Слайд 54: Causes of Intellectual Disability: Cultural-Familial Intellectual Disability

Cultural-familial intellectual disability: Refers to intellectual disability influenced by social environmental factors, such as: Abuse Neglect Social deprivation These factors likely interact with existing biological factors

55

Слайд 55: Treatment of Intellectual Disability

Severe ID: Treatment similar to that for autism spectrum disorder Mild ID: Treatment similar to that for learning disorders Goals are similar across severity; level of assistance differs Behavioral interventions teach: Basic skills (e.g., dressing, hygiene) Social skills Practical skills (e.g., paying bills)

56

Слайд 56: Treatment of Intellectual Disability: Goals

Common goals Participate in community life Benefit from education Hold a job or other productive pursuits (e.g., volunteering) Build meaningful relationships

57

Слайд 57: Prevention of Neurodevelopmental Disorders

Efforts are still in early stages Early interventions for at-risk children Head Start Program: Educational, medical (e.g., nutritional), and social support Future directions: Genetic screening Detection and correction Prenatal gene therapy

58

Последний слайд презентации: Chapter 14 Neurodevelopmental Disorders: Summary of Neurodevelopmental Disorders

This category encompasses a wide range of disorders with varying severity May be caused by genetic or environmental factors or have indeterminate cause Treatment focuses on mitigating functional impairment

Похожие презентации