Слайд 2: EXPANDING SIMPLE SENTENCES WITH VERBAL PHRASES
Verbal phrase consists of a verbal and any objects or modifiers. A verbal is a verb form that does not serve as a verb in the sentence. Instead, it functions as a noun, adjective, or adverb. There are three types of verbals: a gerund, an infinitive, and a participle.
Слайд 3: GERUND PHRASES
A gerund phrase consists of a gerund and any objects and/or modifiers. A gerund phrase can look similar to a participial phrase because the gerund has the same form as the present participle. The main difference is that the gerund (phrase) functions as a noun (i.e. subject, object, subject complement, appositive), but the participial phrase serves as an adjective.
Слайд 4: GERUND PHRASES
Example: Riding my bike is enjoyable in the evening. Gerund: riding Direct object: my bike Modifiers: in the evening
Слайд 5: GERUND PHRASES
I welcomed beginning a new life. Gerund is: Beginning I began opening the window. Gerund is: Opening We like making changes Gerund is: Making
Слайд 6: INFINITIVE PHRASES
An infinitive phrase starts with an infinitive (to), which is followed by any objects, and/or modifiers. Example: To get my grade, I tried to call the registrar’s office, but the receptionist told me to come in the office. The infinitive phrases are to get my grade and to come in the office. infinitive(+)object(+)modifier.
Слайд 7: INFINITIVE PHRASES
Examples: To tour Australia slowly is my dream. Infinitive is to tour (subject). Object: Australia (direct object of the infinitive) Modifier: Slowly (an adverb modifying the infinitive) The infinitive phrase is to tour Australia slowly. I must study to pass my exams with good marks. Infinitive is to pass.
Слайд 8: INFINITIVE PHRASES
Object is my exams (the direct object of the infinitive). Modifier is with good marks (a prepositional phrase modifying the infinitive). Infinitive phrase : to pass my winter exams with good marks.
Слайд 9: PARTICIPIAL PHRASES
A participial phrase consists of either a past or a present participle and any objects, and/or modifiers. Example: 1. That dog keenly hunting the ducks must be a thoroughbred. Participle: HUNTING
Слайд 10: PARTICIPIAL PHRASES
Object: the ducks (direct object of the participle) Modifier: keenly (an adverb modifying the participle) Participial phrase : keenly hunting the ducks 2. Hidden by trees, Jerry waited to scare Mark. Participle: Hidden Modifier : by the trees (a prepositional phrase modifying “hidden”) Participial phrase : hidden by the trees (an adjective modifying “Jerry”)
Слайд 11: EXPANDING SIMPLE SENTENCES WITH APPOSITIVES
Appositives rename noun phrases and are usually placed beside what they rename. Example: That woman, our president, spoke out against racism. “Our president” renames the subject “that woman,” which is an appositive.
Слайд 12: APPOSITIVES
A noun phrase that adds more information about a noun or pronoun. Use a comma to separate a nonessential appositive from the rest of the sentence. Do not use a comma for an essential appositive. Nonessential: Ron, my friend, has 13 credit cards. Essential: He is reading the library book Ten Ways to Get Out of Debt.
Слайд 13: USING MODIFIERS
A misplaced modifier appears to describe the wrong word or phrase, or it is unclear which word or phrase the modifier is describing. A dangling modifier is another problem modifier. A modifier is dangling when the sentence lacks the subject that the modifier is describing.
Слайд 14: MISPLACED MODIFIERS
Misplaced modifier: A word or phrase placed too far from the word or phrase that is described. Misplaced: Our hands blistered when we paddled the boat painfully. (Does painfully modify paddled?) Revised: Our hands blistered painfully when we paddled the boat.
Слайд 15: A DANGLING MODIFIER
Rule: Avoid dangling modifiers. Method 1: Fix a dangling modifier by making it into subordinate clause. Method 2: Fix a dangling modifier by changing the subject of the sentence to the word that the modifier is describing.
Слайд 16: EXAMPLES
Dangling: Paddling down the river, the canoe overturned. Correction # 1: As we paddled down the river, the canoe overturned. Correction # 2: Paddling down the river, we overturned the canoe.
Слайд 17: APPOSITIVES
Appositives can also rename nouns phrases that are not the subject. We waited in our favorite meeting place, the pub. “The pub” renames “Our favorite meeting place,” so it is an appositive.
Слайд 18: EXPANDING SIMPLE SENTENCES WITH COMPOUND CONSTRUCTIONS
Compounds may be joined in three ways: with commas, with a coordinating conjunction, or with a pair of correlative conjunctions Coordinating conjunctions join sentence parts of equal grammatical status.
Слайд 19: COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS
Examples: Do you want to study math or English? The coordinating conjunction “or” is linking two nouns. Do you want to go to the park or to the zoo? The conjunction “or” is linking the phrase “ to the park” with the phrase “to the zoo.” He gave me his phone number, but I lost it. The conjunction “but” is connecting two sentences of equal status.
Слайд 20: COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS
I got up and left the room. The conjunction “and” is connecting the words. I understand, speak, write and read French.
Последний слайд презентации: BUILDING SIMPLE SENTENCES: CORRELATIVE CONJUNCTIONS
Coordinating words that work in pairs are called correlative conjunctions. They join words, phrases, and clauses, as well as whole sentences. Example: We can study either math or English. I not only lost his phone number, but I also forgot where he lived.