Первый слайд презентации
Bio-monitoring and bio-indicators in the aspect of climate change Completed by 1 years Student groups ЭП/м-19-1о Fomkina M.D. Checked : Rudenko Natalya Sergeevna Sevastopol 2020
Bioindication is an assessment of the state of the environment by the reactions of a living organism. This reaction allows us to evaluate the anthropogenic impact on the environment in terms of biological meaning.
Plants and animals are used for bioindication. They have different resistance to anthropogenic influences. Plants are a good indicator of environmental changes caused by anthropogenic pollution. And animals, in turn, are interesting as an object physiologically close to humans. According to their reactions, the consequences of pollution can be foreseen not only for nature, but also for humans. Microbes, the fastest responding bioindicators and are therefore best suited for sanitary-medical experiments.
Слайд 4: Bioindication Methods
Botanical ( phyto ) Soil and zoological Biochemical (enzymatic) Microbiological
Слайд 5: The bioindication method allows you to:
Provide a continuous assessment of environmental conditions and identify the current state of the human environment. To establish the reasons for the negative impact on the environment, natural objects, and predict damage. Make a forecast of changes in the state of the environmental situation in the near and distant future
Слайд 6: Types of bio-indicators
botanical; zoological; microbiological; biochemical
Слайд 7: Soil fertility bioindicators
The fertility of some soils can be high, others - low, however, in both cases it is determined by the nature of the soil formation process and soil formation factors.
Soil fertility Bio indicators In the meadows in forests Very high China meadow, campfire bonfire, meadowsweet, sedge fox Raspberry, nettle, Ivan tea, celandine, hoof Moderate (Medium) Fescue meadow, meadow foxtail, pike soddy, leotard, veronica longifolia Two-leafed minicar, Lungwort, grushanka, leotard Low Belous, sitnik nitevidnyy, dushistyy kolosok, koshach'ya lapka 60/5000 Whitebird, cotton runner, fragrant spikelet, cat's paw Sphagnum mosses, blueberries, lingonberries, cranberries
Слайд 9: Bio Indicators of Acid Soils
Soil acidity is the most important environmental factor that determines the living conditions of soil organisms and higher plants, as well as the mobility of pollutants in the soil.
soil Bio indicators Sour (pH less than 5.0) Whitebird, allspice, small sorrel, horsetail, cranberries, blueberries, sphagnum, heather, green mosses, sphagnum plun. Slightly acidic (pH 5.1 - 5.5) Odorless chamomile, cuff, field blouse, lanceolate reed, pike, caustic buttercup, rattle Neutral (pH 5.5 - 7.0) Foxtail meadow, chicory. Fescue meadow, meadow bluegrass, Siberian hogweed, meadow timothy grass, meadow clover, European chickweed, meadow foxtail, meadow soapweed Alkaline (pH greater than 7.0) Warty euonymus, Siberian elderberry, gerbil, coltsfoot, stonecrop, mustard
Слайд 11: ASSESSMENT OF SALT SOIL CONTAMINATION OF SOIL ON LYPE LEAVES
Linden is very sensitive to soil contamination with salts that come here with sand in the winter. An indicator of the reaction is marginal chlorosis on the leaves. Therefore, by the magnitude of the damage to the linden leaf blades, one can judge the degree of salinity of the lawns.
Слайд 12: INDICATION OF THE CONDITION OF THE ENVIRONMENT BY THE FREQUENCIES OF THE MEETING OF WHITE CLOVER HAIRDRESSERS
The influence of anthropogenic factors quite often affects the phenotypic structure of populations of plant and animal organisms. The frequency of occurrence of some hair dryers is a biological indicator of exposure, in particular, environmental pollution. In white clover, which is quite widespread, the shape of a gray-haired pattern on leaves can be used as an indicator of environmental pollution.
Слайд 13: CRESS SALAD AS A TEST OBJECT FOR ASSESSING SOIL AND AIR POLLUTION
Watercress is an annual vegetable plant that is very sensitive to pollution by heavy metals and motor vehicle emissions. Under the influence of pollutants, the roots and shoots of this plant can change, seed germination is disturbed. Due to the simplicity of cultivation and bioindication use, watercress can be a very convenient biomonitoring object. .
Слайд 14: CRESS SALAD AS A TEST OBJECT FOR ASSESSING SOIL AND AIR POLLUTION
Watercress is an annual vegetable plant that is very sensitive to pollution by heavy metals and motor vehicle emissions. Under the influence of pollutants, the roots and shoots of this plant can change, seed germination is disturbed. Due to the simplicity of cultivation and bioindication use, watercress can be a very convenient biomonitoring object.
Слайд 15: Phytoindication of the excessive content of certain chemical elements in the soil
Plants can react very sensitively to the excess content of certain elements, in particular metals, in the soil. In this case, the color of the leaf blade may change, chlorosis and necrosis are observed. Therefore, evaluating the state of plants in a given territory, some conclusions can be drawn about soil contamination.
Element Plant reaction Zinc Discoloration and death of leaf tissue, yellowing of young leaves, death of apical buds, staining of veins in red or black. The first signs appear on young plants. Copper Chlorosis of young leaves. At the same time, the veins remain green. Manganese Intervein chlorosis, tissue necrosis. Young leaves bend and wrinkle Iron On young leaves, chlorosis between the veins that remain green. Later, the leaf becomes whitish or yellow. Таблица 2. Признаки избыточного содержания некоторых микроэлементов в почве