An auxiliary verbs is a verb used to add functional or grammatical meaning to the clause in witch it appears-for example, to express tense, aspect, modality, voice, emphasis, etc. Auxiliary verbs usually accompany a main verb providing the main semantic content of the clause in whitch it appears.
Слайд 3: An example is the verb have in the sentence I have finished my dinner- here the main verb is finish, and the auxiliary have helps to express the perfect aspect
Слайд 5: Some sentences contain a chain of two or more auxiliary verbs. Auxiliary verbs are also called helping verbs, helper verbs, or (verbal) auxiliaries. They may be glossed with the abbreviation AUX
Слайд 6: Basic examples Some sentences containing representative auxiliary verbs from English, German, and French follow, with the auxiliary verb marked in bold:
Do you want tea? – do is an auxiliary accompanying the main verb want, used here to form a question – see do -support. He has given his all. – has is an auxiliary used in expressing the perfect aspect of give.
Das wurde mehrmals gesagt. – wurde 'became' is an auxiliary used to build the passive voice in German. That became many times said = 'That was said many times.' Sie ist nach Hause gegangen. – ist 'is' is an auxiliary used with movement verbs to build the perfect tense/aspect in German. She is to home gone = 'She went home/She has gone home.'
J' ai vu le soleil. – ai 'have' is an auxiliary used to build the perfect tense aspect in French. I have seen the sun = 'I have seen the sun/I saw the sun.' Nous sommes aidйs. – sommes 'are' is an auxiliary used to build the passive voice in French. We are helped = 'We are being helped.'
Слайд 9: These auxiliaries help express a question, show tense/aspect, or form passive voice. Auxiliaries like these typically appear with a full verb that carries the main semantic content of the clause
Слайд 10: Traits of auxiliary verbs across languages
Typical uses of auxiliary verbs are to help express grammatical tense, aspect, mood and voice. They typically appear together with a main verb; the auxiliary is said to "help" the main verb. The auxiliary verbs of a language form a closed class, i.e. there is a fixed, relatively small number of them. They are often among the most frequently occurring verbs in a language.
Слайд 11: Widely acknowledged verbs that can serve as auxiliaries in English and many related languages are the equivalents of be to express passive voice, and have (and sometimes be) to express perfect aspect or past time reference
Слайд 12: In some treatments, the copula be is classed as an auxiliary even though it does not "help" another verb, e.g. The bird is in the tree. – is serves as a copula with a predicative expression not containing any other verb. Definitions of auxiliary verbs are not always consistent across languages, or even among authors discussing the same language
In French, for example, verbs such as devoir "have to", pouvoir "be able to", aller "be going to", vouloir "want", faire "make" and laisser "let", when used together with the infinitive of another verb, can be called semi-auxiliaries.
Auxiliary verbs in English Main article: English auxiliaries and contractions The following sections consider auxiliary verbs in English. A list of auxiliary verbs is produced, and then the diagnostics that motivate this special class (subject-auxiliary inversion and negation with not ) are presented. The modal verbs are included in this class due to their behavior with respect to these diagnostics.