Первый слайд презентации
1 Class 5 Optimization models Demand function equation. Revenue maximization. Profit maximization. BEPs. Study materials: Slides
Слайд 2: Demand function
2 Demand function What shall we do with our selling Price, if: P 1 = $1,000, then Q 1 = 400 units, and R 1 = $400,000 P 2 = $1,750, then Q 2 = 250 units, and R 2 = $437,500 To do: (a) increase the price, or (b) decrease the price, or (c) keep the price at $1,750? SOLUTION: The price that MAX the revenue shall be: $2,250, $2,000, $1,750, $1,500, $1,250?
Слайд 3: Demand function
3 Demand function Correct answer: The “best” price to MAX the revenue would be: $1,500 P opt = $1,500, then Q opt = 300 units, and R MAX = $450,000 To do: (a) increase the price (b) decrease the price (c) keep the price at $1,750 This can be solved through (1) finding the demand function equation, and (2) solving a revenue maximization problem.
Слайд 4: Demand function
4 Demand function Can be found using the approaches: Sales tests: P 1, Q 1 P 2, Q 2 NB: Demand function is not always linear. P(MAX) and Q(MAX) are indicative. Sales test not always linear. Need to offset the effect of seasonality.
Слайд 5: Demand Function Equation
5 Demand Function Equation Y = a + b*X, basic linear equation P = a + b*Q, demand function equation where: a = P(MAX in the market) = 3,000 b = slope of the demand function line = delta Y/ delta X = -5 Q(MAX) = - a/b = 600 (units) NB: Mind the negative value of the variable coefficient of the linear equation “b”.
Слайд 6: Task: Revenue maximization
6 Task: Revenue maximization Q*(Revenue MAX) = - a/2b = 300 (u) Substitute Q* into the Demand function equation, will find P* (= the price at Q* point) P*= 3,000 +(-5)*300 = $1,500 R* = P* x Q* = 450,000 NB: R* is highest revenue possible at the current demand.
Слайд 7: Profit maximization
7 Profit maximization Q** (Profit MAX) = - (a – VC(u)) / 2b P** shall correspond to the value of Q** Data needed: fixed and variable costs FC = $100,000 VC(u) = $500 Q** = 250(u), then P** = 1,750, then R** = 437,500, and Pr** = R** - FC – VC(u)Q** = $212,500 Pr** is highest operating profit possible at the current demand and total costs