Первый слайд презентации: 1. Menu and Menu types 2. Menu Planning 3. Menu Pricing 4. Menu Evaluation
Discuss: How do customers view menus? What is the role and purpose of the menu in a foodservice operation? How is a menu used as a marketing tool? How to use a menu as a selling tool? List the common mistakes found on menus. List and explain the points that must be considered when planning a menu
Слайд 2: Delight your guests... Develop your business
The word “menu” ( the bill of fare), as a list of prepared foods, dates back to eighteenth century and first appeared in France, although the custom of making a list of the courses for a meal is much older. The bill of fare was originally very large &was placed at the end of table for everyone to read. As the time progressed the menu became smaller in size & a number of copies were made which allowed individuals to read their own copy. The word "menu," like much of the terminology of cuisine, is French in origin. It ultimately derives from Latin " minutus," something made small; in French it came to be applied to a detailed list or résumé of any kind.
Слайд 3: Types of Menu
1. Table d'hôte is a menu where multi-course meals with only a few choices are charged at a fixed total price. Such a menu may also be called prix fixe (at the "fixed price"). The terms set meal and set menu are also used. The cutlery on the table may also already be set for all of the courses. 2. A La Carte is a French language loan phrase meaning "according to the menu", and used in reference to a menu of items priced and ordered separately, i.e. the usual operation of restaurants. This is in contrast to a table d'hôte, at which a menu with limited or no choice is served at a fixed price (to order an item from the menu on its own, e.g. a steak without the potatoes and vegetables is steak à la carte). It is also used to describe a retail pricing model in which goods or services traditionally bundled together are separated out, putatively giving the consumer greater choice at lower cost. Examples include airline pricing where in-flight drinks or snacks are not complimentary, on-line music purchasing where individual tracks can be bought instead of entire albums, or pay television where individual channels can be ordered rather than a bundle of channels. 3. cartes du jour - a menu listing dishes available on a particular day. plat du jour - A French phrase meaning dish of the day, used to mean a dish that a restaurant is featuring on a particular day - “today’s special”. plat du chef - a French phrase meaning a dish cooked by a special recipe of the chef of the restaurant.
Breakfast and Brunch Breakfast Fewer people eat breakfast than lunch or dinner, it accounts only for ~20% of daily restaurant traffic. Commercial and on-site foodservice operations usually offer traditional breakfast items and light and healthful options. Brunch is a mid to late-morning meal. It’s a combo of breakfast & lunch type items. Commonly served on weekend or catered events. Lunch Offers much more complicated dishes than those served at breakfast. But it must be produced faster than dinner items. The popular trend is Lunch-to-go which is cheap and fast. Right packaging, while adding cost, is a secret to a successful lunch-to-go program. Dinner Traditionally includes soups, potato, vegetable & salads and desserts. Supper Late and usually light evening meal. Menus are getting shorter, but appetizer section is getting longer. Ethnic cuisines impact supper menus a lot. Desserts are commonly included on menu.
Cultural (ethnic) menus, such as French, Italian, Chinese, Japanese or Indian style. Specialty - steak, fish, pasta etc. Children menus. Medical diets, including low/high fiber, low fat/cholesterol, diabetic, peanut free, non-lactose, low salt/sodium, low- purine, low-calorie, low-protein, bland (non-spicy) and gluten-free meals (in hospitals, at the resorts, recreational institutions). Religious menus, including kosher, halal and Hindu, Buddhist. Vegetarian and vegan meals. Event or Occasion menus – wedding, birthday, funeral, national holiday celebration, graduation ceremony.
Слайд 6: Static and Changing Menus
Static Menu - The same menu items are offered everyday. Customer’s choice of a place to dine is made easier when menu is constant over time or the customer may grow bored when a constant selection is offered. Changing or Cycle Menu is offering different items each day on a weekly, biweekly, or some other basis, after which the cycle is repeated. Seasonal cycle menus are common. Used in healthcare institutions and schools operations that serve the same clientele and should daily offer a variety on the menu items to satisfy their customers.
Слайд 7: Kosher menu
Kashrut (also kashruth or kashrus, כַּשְׁרוּת) is the set of Jewish religious dietary laws. Food that may be consumed according to halakha (Jewish law) is termed kosher in English (m eaning "fit" for consumption). Among the numerous laws that form part of kashrut are the prohibitions on the consumption of unclean animals (such as pork, shellfish (both Mollusca and Crustacea - a large group of mainly aquatic arthropods which include crabs, lobsters, shrimps, woodlice) and most insects, with the exception of certain species of kosher locusts and the commandment to slaughter mammals and birds according to a process known as shechita (permissible animals must have cloven hooves as well as chew the cud, and must be slaughtered according to laws in the Torah, with the animal’s death to be as instantaneous as possible. The religious slaughter must also include the removal of the animal’s blood, prohibited fats and veins). The only kosher animals, for all intents and purposes, are cows, sheep and goats, while kosher poultry includes chicken, duck, turkey, geese and pigeon.
Fish can only be eaten if it has fins and scales – such as tuna, herring and salmon. Meat and dairy must be completely separated, which means they cannot be cooked or eaten together. Kosher kitchens contain separate sets of utensils and preparation areas to ensure this is followed. It also means that dairy and meat cannot be served on the same table. It also means a person must wait an interval of between one and three hours after eating meat before eating dairy. There are also laws regarding agricultural produce that might impact on the suitability of food for consumption (fertilizers and minerals usage). Pareve foods are those that are neither meat nor diary and thus are considered ‘neutral’, such as vegetables, grains and fruit.
Alcohol is generally Kosher but drinks that derive from the grape, such a wine or port, are subject to strict constraints surrounding their production. Spirits must be made from sugar or grain. Over the past century, there have developed numerous rabbinical organizations that certify products, manufacturers, and restaurants as kosher, usually using a symbol (called a hechsher ) to indicate their support.
The Jewish mother or Jewish wife stereotype is a common stereotype and stock character used by Jewish and non-Jewish comedians, television and film writers, actors, and authors in the United States. The stereotype generally involves a nagging, loud, highly-talkative, overprotective, smothering, and overbearing mother or wife, who persists in interfering in her children's lives long after they have become adults and who is excellent at making her children feel guilty for actions which may have caused her to suffer. The Jewish mother stereotype can also involve a loving and overly proud mother who is highly defensive about her children in front of others. Like Italian mother stereotypes, Jewish mother characters are often shown cooking for the family, urging loved ones to eat more, and taking great pride in their food. Feeding a loved one is characterized as an extension of the desire to mother those around her.
Слайд 12: Vegan vs. Vegetarian Menus
Neither vegans nor vegetarians eat meat. However, while vegetarians tend to consume dairy products and eggs, a vegan avoids all animal products, including eggs and dairy, and often inedible animal-based products, such as leather, wool, and silk. Vegetarianism is usually a diet, while veganism is a lifestyle. Vegetarians often choose their diet based on its reported health benefits or for religious or political reasons. In general, vegans have much stronger political beliefs regarding their diet, with some believing animals should be protected under many of the same laws that humans are. Pescetarian / pɛskəˈtɛəriən / — person who supplements a vegetarian diet with fish.
Vegan Vegetarian Vegans do not consume meat, eggs, milk, honey or any food that is derived from animals. Do not use any animal derived products, e.g. fur, leather, wool, etc. Do not condone the use of animal testing. Do not eat meat or fish. Some do consume dairy and some vegetarians consume eggs. Lacto-vegetarian: eating dairy products. Ovo -vegetarian: eating eggs. Do not eat gelatin or other animal by products. While vegetarians do not eat meat, most vegetarians do not mind using other animal-derived products, e.g. fur, leather, or wool.
Слайд 16: Raw foodism
(or following a raw food diet ) is the dietary practice of eating only uncooked, unprocessed foods. Depending on the exact philosophy or type of lifestyle and results desired, raw food diets may include a selection of fruits, vegetables, nuts, seeds, eggs, fish, meat and dairy products. It may also include simply processed foods such as various types of sprouted seeds, cheese, and fermented foods such as yogurts, kefir, kombucha (is a fermented drink sauerkraut made with tea, sugar, bacteria and yeast) or, but generally not foods that have been pasteurized, homogenized, or produced with the use of synthetic pesticides, chemical fertilizers, industrial solvents or chemical food additives.
Advocates argue that raw or living foods have natural enzymes, which are critical in building proteins and rebuilding the body, and that heating these foods destroys the natural enzymes and can leave toxic materials behind. However, critics point out that enzymes, as with other proteins consumed in the diet, are denatured and eventually lysed by the digestive process, rendering them non-functional. Heating food above 104-120 °Fahrenheit (40-49 °C) degrades or destroys these enzymes in food. Cooked foods contain harmful toxins, which can cause chronic disease and other problems. Heating oils and fats can produce trace amounts of trans fats. Raw foods such as fruits and vegetables are high in antioxidants, which raw- foodists believe can help to stifle signs of aging. Dr. Joel Fuhrman, author of "Eat To Live", says that uncooked cruciferous vegetables have the most powerful anti-cancer effects of all foods. He also says that most of the phytonutrients function as antioxidants in the body, meaning they neutralize free radicals, rendering them harmless and reducing cancer risk. Raw foodists believe that this property found in alkaline living foods or raw food, which neutralizes free radicals, makes green smoothies a powerful antioxidant drink. Because raw seeds and nuts are vulnerable to moldiness and rancidity, raw products made from these ingredients should stay refrigerated to maintain optimum nutritional value and flavor, as well as to minimize oxidation caused by the nut and seed oils' becoming rancid. Air-pollution and smoking are extremely harmful to health. They also believe that recycled tapwater is harmful, especially fluoridated or chlorinated tapwater. But raw foods include bacteria and other micro-organisms that affect the immune system and digestion by populating the digestive tract with beneficial gut flora.